Wind Energy Handbook

Wind Energy Handbook

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Overview

Named as one of Choice's Outstanding Academic Titles of 2012 Every year, Choice subject editors recognise the most significant print and electronic works reviewed in Choice during the previous calendar year. Appearing annually in Choice's January issue, this prestigious list of publications reflects the best in scholarly titles and attracts extraordinary attention from the academic library community.

The authoritative reference on wind energy, now fully revised and updated to include offshore wind power

A decade on from its first release, the Wind Energy Handbook, Second Edition, reflects the advances in technology underpinning the continued expansion of the global wind power sector. Harnessing their collective industrial and academic expertise, the authors provide a comprehensive introduction to wind turbine design and wind farm planning for onshore and offshore wind-powered electricity generation.

The major change since the first edition is the addition of a new chapter on offshore wind turbines and offshore wind farm development. Opening with a survey of the present state of offshore wind farm development, the chapter goes on to consider resource assessment and array losses. Then wave loading on support structures is examined in depth, including wind and wave load combinations and descriptions of applicable wave theories. After sections covering optimum machine size and offshore turbine reliability, the different types of support structure deployed to date are described in turn, with emphasis on monopiles, including fatigue analysis in the frequency domain. Final sections examine the assessment of environmental impacts and the design of the power collection and transmission cable network.

New coverage features:

  • turbulence models updated to reflect the latest design standards, including an introduction to the Mann turbulence model
  • extended treatment of horizontal axis wind turbines aerodynamics, now including a survey of wind turbine aerofoils, dynamic stall and computational fluid dynamics
  • developments in turbine design codes
  • techniques for extrapolating extreme loads from simulation results
  • an introduction to the NREL cost model
  • comparison of options for variable speed operation
  • in-depth treatment of individual blade pitch control
  • grid code requirements and the principles governing the connection of large wind farms to transmission networks
  • four pages of full-colour pictures that illustrate blade manufacture, turbine construction and offshore support structure installation

Firmly established as an essential reference, Wind Energy Handbook, Second Edition will prove a real asset to engineers, turbine designers and wind energy consultants both in industry and research. Advanced engineering students and new entrants to the wind energy sector will also find it an invaluable resource.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781119993926
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 05/18/2011
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 780
File size: 21 MB
Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

About the Author

Tony Burton, Wind Energy Consultant, Powys, UK

Nick Jenkins, Cardiff University, UK

David Sharpe, Wind Energy Consultant, Essex, UK

Ervin Bossanyi, GL Garrad Hassan, Bristol, UK

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Table of Contents

About the Authors xvii

Preface to Second Edition xix

Acknowledgements for First Edition xxi

Acknowledgements for Second Edition xxiii

List of Symbols xxv

Figures C1 and C2 – Co-ordinate Systems xxxv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Historical development 1

1.2 Modern wind turbines 4

1.3 Scope of the book 6

References 7

Further reading 8

2 The wind resource 9

2.1 The nature of the wind 9

2.2 Geographical variation in the wind resource 10

2.3 Long-term wind speed variations 11

2.4 Annual and seasonal variations 12

2.5 Synoptic and diurnal variations 14

2.6 Turbulence 14

2.7 Gust wind speeds 28

2.8 Extreme wind speeds 29

2.9 Wind speed prediction and forecasting 32

2.10 Turbulence in wakes and wind farms 33

2.11 Turbulence in complex terrain 36

References 36

3 Aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines 39

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 The actuator disc concept 40

3.3 Rotor disc theory 44

3.4 Vortex cylinder model of the actuator disc 49

3.5 Rotor blade theory (blade-element/momentum theory) 57

3.6 Breakdown of the momentum theory 64

3.7 Blade geometry 66

3.8 The effects of a discrete number of blades 75

3.9 Stall delay 92

3.10 Calculated results for an actual turbine 95

3.11 The performance curves 97

3.12 Constant rotational speed operation 101

3.13 Pitch regulation 105

3.14 Comparison of measured with theoretical performance 107

3.15 Variable speed operation 108

3.16 Estimation of energy capture 109

3.17 Wind turbine aerofoil design 114

References 119

Websites 120

Further reading 120

Appendix A3 lift and drag of aerofoils 120

A3.1 Definition of drag 121

A3.2 Drag coefficient 123

A3.3 The boundary layer 124

A3.4 Boundary layer separation 124

A3.5 Laminar and turbulent boundary layers 125

A3.6 Definition of lift and its relationship to circulation 127

A3.7 The stalled aerofoil 130

A3.8 The lift coefficient 131

A3.9 Aerofoil drag characteristics 131

A3.10 Cambered aerofoils 134

4 Further aerodynamic topics for wind turbines 137

4.1 Introduction 137

4.2 The aerodynamics of turbines in steady yaw 137

4.3 The method of acceleration potential 163

4.4 Unsteady flow 176

4.5 Quasi-steady aerofoil aerodynamics 183

4.6 Dynamic stall 189

4.7 Computational fluid dynamics 190

References 191

Further reading 192

5 Design loads for horizontal axis wind turbines 193

5.1 National and international standards 193

5.2 Basis for design loads 194

5.3 Turbulence and wakes 197

5.4 Extreme loads 199

5.5 Fatigue loading 205

5.6 Stationary blade loading 205

5.7 Blade loads during operation 213

5.8 Blade dynamic response 241

5.9 Blade fatigue stresses 267

5.10 Hub and low speed shaft loading 273

5.11 Nacelle loading 277

5.12 Tower loading 278

5.13 Wind turbine dynamic analysis codes 288

5.14 Extrapolation of extreme loads from simulations 294

References 306

Appendix 5: dynamic response of stationary blade in turbulent wind 308

A5.1 Introduction 308

A5.2 Frequency response function 309

A5.3 Resonant displacement response ignoring wind variations along the blade 310

A5.4 Effect of across-wind turbulence distribution on resonant displacement response 313

A5.5 Resonant root bending moment 316

A5.6 Root bending moment background response 318

A5.7 Peak response 319

A5.8 Bending moments at intermediate blade positions 322

References 323

6 Conceptual design of horizontal axis wind turbines 325

6.1 Introduction 325

6.2 Rotor diameter 325

6.3 Machine rating 332

6.4 Rotational speed 336

6.5 Number of blades 338

6.6 Teetering 346

6.7 Power control 349

6.8 Braking systems 356

6.9 Fixed speed, two speed or variable speed 358

6.10 Type of generator 365

6.11 Drive train mounting arrangement options 369

6.12 Drive train compliance 373

6.13 Rotor position with respect to tower 375

6.14 Tower stiffness 376

6.15 Personnel safety and access issues 379

References 381

7 Component design 383

7.1 Blades 383

7.2 Pitch bearings 419

7.3 Rotor hub 422

7.4 Gearbox 425

7.5 Generator 437

7.6 Mechanical brake 446

7.7 Nacelle bedplate 453

7.8 Yaw drive 453

7.9 Tower 456

7.10 Foundations 467

References 471

8 The controller 475

8.1 Functions of the wind turbine controller 476

8.2 Closed loop control: issues and objectives 478

8.3 Closed loop control: general techniques 484

8.4 Closed loop control: analytical design methods 506

8.5 Pitch actuators (see also, Chapter 6 Section 6.7.2) 518

8.6 Control system implementation 519

References 522

9 Wind turbine installations and wind farms 525

9.1 Project development 526

9.2 Landscape and visual impact assessment 533

9.3 Noise 542

9.4 Electromagnetic Interference 551

9.5 Ecological assessment 558

References 562

10 Wind energy and the electric power system 565

10.1 Introduction 565

10.2 Wind farm power collection systems 569

10.3 Earthing (grounding) of wind farms 572

10.4 Lightning protection 575

10.5 Connection of wind generation to distribution networks 578

10.6 Power system studies 581

10.7 Power quality 582

10.8 Electrical protection 590

10.9 Distributed generation and the Grid Codes 598

10.10 Wind energy and the generation system 602

References 607

Appendix A10 Simple calculations for the connection of wind turbines 609

A10.1 The Per-unit system 609

A10.2 Power flows, slow voltage variations and network losses 609

11 Offshore wind turbines and wind farms 613

11.1 Development of offshore wind energy 613

11.2 The offshore wind resource 616

11.3 Design loads 620

11.4 Machine size optimisation 661

11.5 Reliability of offshore wind turbines 663

11.6 Support structures 667

11.7 Environmental assessment of offshore wind farms 704

11.8 Offshore power collection and transmission 707

11.9 Operation and access 717

References 719

Appendix A11 723

References for table A11.1 723

Index 729

What People are Saying About This

From the Publisher

"I highly recommend the classic and definitive reference book Wind Energy Handbook, Second Edition by Tony Burton, Nick Jenkins, David Sharpe, and Ervin Bossanyi, to any engineering students in undergraduate or graduate studies, teaching academics, practicing engineers, business leaders in technology or electrical utilities, and government policy makers seeking a complete and authoritative overview of design, manufacturing, and installation of horizontal axis wind turbines. This book offers a complete survey of the field, and contains an important section on wind farms as well. Overall, this is a very important and essential addition to any study or practice in the field." (Blog Business World, 19 February 2012)

"If libraries wish to acquire just one book on wind energy, this title is a very good candidate. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates, graduate students, two-year technical program students, researchers/faulty, technicians/professionals, and informed general readers." (Choice, 1 December 2011)

Customer Reviews