ISBN-10:
0691133824
ISBN-13:
9780691133829
Pub. Date:
09/16/2007
Publisher:
Princeton University Press
When Computers Were Human

When Computers Were Human

by David Alan GrierDavid Alan Grier
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Overview

Before Palm Pilots and iPods, PCs and laptops, the term "computer" referred to the people who did scientific calculations by hand. These workers were neither calculating geniuses nor idiot savants but knowledgeable people who, in other circumstances, might have become scientists in their own right. When Computers Were Human represents the first in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch in the history of science and technology.


Beginning with the story of his own grandmother, who was trained as a human computer, David Alan Grier provides a poignant introduction to the wider world of women and men who did the hard computational labor of science. His grandmother's casual remark, "I wish I'd used my calculus," hinted at a career deferred and an education forgotten, a secret life unappreciated; like many highly educated women of her generation, she studied to become a human computer because nothing else would offer her a place in the scientific world.


The book begins with the return of Halley's comet in 1758 and the effort of three French astronomers to compute its orbit. It ends four cycles later, with a UNIVAC electronic computer projecting the 1986 orbit. In between, Grier tells us about the surveyors of the French Revolution, describes the calculating machines of Charles Babbage, and guides the reader through the Great Depression to marvel at the giant computing room of the Works Progress Administration.



When Computers Were Human is the sad but lyrical story of workers who gladly did the hard labor of research calculation in the hope that they might be part of the scientific community. In the end, they were rewarded by a new electronic machine that took the place and the name of those who were, once, the computers.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780691133829
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Publication date: 09/16/2007
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 424
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.25(h) x (d)

About the Author

David Alan Grier is Associate Professor in the Center for International Science and Technology Policy at George Washington University. His articles on the history of science have appeared in the American Mathematical Monthly, Chance, the Christian Science Monitor, and the Washington Post. He is Editor in Chief of the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. Long before he learned that his grandmother had been trained as a human computer, he absorbed the methods of programming the electronic computer from his father, who was a scientific computing specialist for the Burroughs Corporation.

Table of Contents

Introduction: A Grandmother's Secret Life 1

Part I: Astronomy and the Division of Labor 1682-1880 9

Chapter One: The First Anticipated Return: Halley's Comet 1758 11

Chapter Two: The Children of Adam Smith 26

Chapter Three: The Celestial Factory: Halley's Comet 1835 46

Chapter Four: The American Prime Meridian 55

Chapter Five: A Carpet for the Computing Room 72

Part II: Mass Production and New Fields of Science 1880-1930 89

Chapter Six: Looking Forward, Looking Backward: Machinery 1893 91

Chapter Seven: Darwin's Cousins 102

Chapter Eight: Breaking from the Ellipse: Halley's Comet 1910 119

Chapter Nine: Captains of Academe 126

Chapter Ten: War Production 145

Chapter Eleven: Fruits of the Conflict: Machinery 1922 159

Part III: Professional Computers and an Independent Discipline 1930-1964 175

Chapter Twelve: The Best of Bad Times 177

Chapter Thirteen: Scientific Relief 198

Chapter Fourteen: Tools of the Trade: Machinery 1937 220

Chapter Fifteen: Professional Ambition 233

Chapter Sixteen: The Midtown New York Glide Bomb Club 256

Chapter Seventeen: The Victor's Share 276

Chapter Eighteen: I Alone Am Left to Tell Thee 298

Epilogue: Final Passage: Halley's Comet 1986 318

Acknowledgments 323

Appendix: Recurring Characters, Institutions, and Concepts 325

Notes 333

Research Notes and Bibliography 373

Index 401

Illustration Credits 412

What People are Saying About This

George Dyson

How did the lives of people and the lives of numbers become so intimately entwined? David Alan Grier's authoritative, engaging, and richly detailed account of this neglected chapter in the history (and prehistory) of computing abounds with remarkable characters, sheds long-awaited light on their achievements, and could not have been better told.
George Dyson, author of "Darwin among the Machines"

Williams

The story of computation before the invention of the computer is an important one—one that has not been told in this way before. This narrative grabs you right from the first page. Grier tells the human story behind some of the greatest scientific accomplishments, and tells it in a very readable way.
Michael R. Williams, Head Curator, Computer History Museum

James Fallows

When Computers Were Human is a detailed and fascinating look at a world I had not even known existed. After reading these accounts of ingenuity, determination, and true creative breakthrough, readers will look at today's computer-based society in an entirely different way.
James Fallows, National Correspondent, "Atlantic Monthly"

From the Publisher

"When Computers Were Human is a detailed and fascinating look at a world I had not even known existed. After reading these accounts of ingenuity, determination, and true creative breakthrough, readers will look at today's computer-based society in an entirely different way."—James Fallows, National Correspondent, Atlantic Monthly

"How did the lives of people and the lives of numbers become so intimately entwined? David Alan Grier's authoritative, engaging, and richly detailed account of this neglected chapter in the history (and prehistory) of computing abounds with remarkable characters, sheds long-awaited light on their achievements, and could not have been better told."—George Dyson, author of Darwin among the Machines

"The story of computation before the invention of the computer is an important one—one that has not been told in this way before. This narrative grabs you right from the first page. Grier tells the human story behind some of the greatest scientific accomplishments, and tells it in a very readable way."—Michael R. Williams, Head Curator, Computer History Museum

"The history of the electronic computer has become the topic of a fair amount of scholarly work, and yet the wonderful story of the (collective) human computer has barely been noticed. This book will appeal both to an appreciable range of scholars and to more general readers. The style is pleasant and informal; the mathematics, accessible and interesting."—Theodore M. Porter, author of Trust in Numbers: The Pursuit of Objectivity in Science and Public Life

Porter

The history of the electronic computer has become the topic of a fair amount of scholarly work, and yet the wonderful story of the (collective) human computer has barely been noticed. This book will appeal both to an appreciable range of scholars and to more general readers. The style is pleasant and informal; the mathematics, accessible and interesting.
Theodore M. Porter, author of "Trust in Numbers: The Pursuit of Objectivity in Science and Public Life"

Customer Reviews