Welsh Ballads of the French Revolution

Welsh Ballads of the French Revolution

by Ffion Mair Jones

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Overview

Welsh Ballads of the French Revolution is a collection of ballads composed in reaction to the momentous events of the French Revolution and the two decades of war that followed. Ballad writers first responded in 1793, when the French monarchs were executed and France declared war upon Britain, but as the decade proceeded, sang in thanks for the victory of British forces and to the extensive mobilization of militia and volunteer forces. This volume, complete with parallel English translations of the original Welsh texts and copious contextualizing notes, introduces readers to this telling corpus for the first time and to a host of little-known authors.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780708324615
Publisher: University of Wales Press
Publication date: 04/15/2012
Series: University of Wales Press - Wales and the French Revolution Series
Pages: 464
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.30(d)

About the Author

Ffion Mair Jones is a research fellow at the University of Wales’s Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies. She is the author of ‘The Bard Is a Very Singular Character’: Iolo Morganwg, Marginalia and Print Culture, also published by the University of Wales Press.

Table of Contents

List of Figures xiii

Preface xv

Acknowledgements xix

List of Abbreviations xxi

Introduction 1

Texts and Translations

Editorial Principles 77

1793

1 Anon.,'Y brenin a'r llywodraeth, neu, y Refoliwsion yn 1688 wedi gwneuthur ail Refoliwsion yn afreidiol i'r Brutaniaid' (The king and the government, or, the Revolution of 1688 having made a second Revolution unnecessary for the Britons) 82

2 Anon.,'Sylwiad byr ar y papuryn a ddaeth allan yn ddiweddar dan yr enw Un-geiniogwerth o Wirionedd, tnewn anerchiad gan Tomas ap Siencyn i'wfiawd Sion, amcan a cliben pa un ydoedd ceisio drwgliwio'rYmneilltuwyr yng ngolwg y werin anwybodus' (A brief observation regarding the pamphlet which appeared recently under the name One Penny-worth of Truth, in an address by Thomas son of Jenkin to Ids brother John, the intention and purpose of which was to try and misrepresent the Dissenters in the eyes of the ignorant populace) 92

3 Richard Roberts, 'Ychydig o hanes y g[wrthr]yfel a [fu] rhwng brenin Fffrainc] [a'i deyrnas ei hun, ac] y to[rasant ei] be[n ef;] ac fel y maent yn a[wr] yn sychedu am waed yr hen Fryt[a]niaid; ond gobeithio y tagant o [s]yched yn gyntaf, ac na chant mo'u hewyllys arn[om] ni. Duw a safo gy[d]a Brenin George III [a]c Eglwys [L]oegr' (A little of the history of the insurrection which took place between the king of France and his own kingdom; and that they cut off his head; and how they are now thirsting for the blood of the ancient Britons; but let us hope that they will die of thirst first, and that they will not see their will fulfilled upon us. May God stand with King George III and the Church of England) 100

4 Edward Pugh, '[Cerdd] o ganmoliaeth i'r Duke o' York, a diolchgarwch i Dduw, am gael y ffafr o orchfygu ein gelynion, sef y Ffrancod' (A song of praise to the Duke of York, and of thankfulness to God, for granting the favour of vanquishing our enemies, namely the French) 110

5 [?Shôn ap Ifan], 'Ffarwél gŵr ieuanc i'w wlad oedd wedi listio i'r armi hefo'r Duwc o' Yore' (The farewell of a young man, who had enlisted with the Duke of York's army, to his country) 116

1794

6 Anon., 'Odlau newyddion ar ystyriaeth yr amserau, yn y flwyddyn 1794' (New rhymes in consideration of the times, in the year 1794) 120

7 Richard Roberts, 'Ychydig o hanes brenhines Ffrainc; y modd y cafodd ei difetha, sef torri ei phen a rhwymo ei dwy fraich ar ei chefh, Hydref 17, 1793' (A little of the story of the queen of France; the manner in which she was slain, namely by severing her head and tying her two arms onto her back, October 17, 1793) 124

8 Richard Robert[s],'[Cerdd newydd] yn gosod allan y moddion amy rhyfeloedd presennol rhyngom a'r Ffrancod, a dull y grefydd babaidd' (A new song setting out the features of the current wars between us and the French, and the manner of the popish religion) 130

9 Robert Roberts,'[Cerdd] yn gosod allan wroldeb, ffyddlondeb a llwyddiant y Duke o' York yn y rhyfeloedd presennol' (A song setting out the valour, loyalty and success of the Duke of York in the 'current wars) 138

10 Robert Roberts, '[Cerdd] yn rhoddi byr hanes o'r frwydyr ddigyffelyb honno a ymladdwyd ar y môr y dydd cyntaf o Fehefin 1794, yn yr hon y gorchfygwyd y French gan Admiral Lord Howe' (A song giving the brief history of that incomparable battle that was fought on the sea on the first day of June 1794, in which the French were defeated by Admiral Lord Howe) 144

1795

11 Jonathan Hughes, '[Cerdd] o galondid i'r milwyr gwladychaidd yr ydys yn godi yn y deyrnas hon i gadw porthladdoedd, pa rai a elwir yn gyffredin milisia' (A song of encouragement to the patriotic soldiers that are being raised in this kingdom to protect harbours, who are generally called the militia) 150

1797

12 Anon., 'Cân newydd am y waredigaeth fawr a gafodd yr hen Frytaniaid trwy law Duw [a] Lord Cawdor, oddi wrth lu o ladron Ff[rein]ig yn y flwydd 1797' (A new song on the great deliverance which the old Britons received through the hand of God and Lord Cawdor, from a host of French thieves in the year 1797) 158

13 Anon., 'Cân newydd o America, a ysgrifennwyd gan un o'r rhai a aeth i'r wlad honno yn ddiweddar, yr hon sy'n cynnwys y llwyddiant a'r aflwyddiant a gawsant ar eu taith, ynghyd ag ychydig hanes o'r wlad eang honno' (A new song from America, written by one of those who recendy went to that country, which recounts the good fortune and the adversity that they encountered on their journey, together with some account of that vast country) 164

14 Anon.,'Cân o ddiolchgarwch i'r Arglwydd am Ei waredigaeth hynod, yn ein cadw rhag fflangell ein gelynion pan tiriasant yn ein tir' (A song of gratitude to the Lord for His remarkable deliverance, keeping us from the scourge of our enemies when they landed on our land) 170

15 Anon., 'Clod i'r Cymry, gwyr sir Benfro, am gymeryd y rheibus elynion cythreulig, ysglyfyddwyr mileinig, sef Ffrancod, pan diriasant yn Abergwaun' (Praise to the Welsh, the men of Pembrokeshire, for seizing the voracious, fiendish enemies, savage plunderers, namely the French, when they landed in Fishguard) 178

16 Edward Pugh,'[D]iolch i Dduw am y rhydd-did a gafodd Lloegr i ymladd â'r Sbaniards a'u gorthrechu a chymeryd eu llongau ar y môr, gan y llywydd, Arglwydd Jervis' (Thanks to God for the deliverance which England had to fight the Spaniards and vanquish them and take their ships upon the sea, by the commander, Lord Jervis) 186

17 Hugh Jones,'[Cerdd] yn rhoi hanes brwydr a fu rhwng Lloegr a Hisbaen, y 14 o Chwefror 1797, a'r modd y gorchfygwyd yr Ysbaeniaid gan Syr John Jervis, admiral Lloegr' (A song giving the story of a battle which took place between England and Spain on 14 February 1797, and how the Spanish were vanquished by Sir John Jervis, England's admiral) 190

18 Nathaniel Jenkin,'Annerch i'r Cymry, i'w hannog i edifarhau am eu pechodau a dychwelyd at Dduw, ac i'w glodfori am ein gwared o grafangau'r Ffrancod didrugaredd' (An address to the Welsh, to urge them to repent of their sins and return to God, and to praise Him for delivering us from the claws of the merciless French) 196

19 Phillip Dafydd,' Anogaeth i foliannu Duw am y waredigaeth fawr a gafodd y wlad pan tiriodd 1,400 o'r Ffrancod echryslon yn Pencaer yn sir Benfro, i oresgyn ein tir trwy ladd a llosgi ein cyd-wladwyr' (Encouragement to praise God for the great deliverance which the country had when 1,400 fearsome Frenchmen landed at Pencaer in Pembrokeshire, to conquer our land by murdering and burning our fellow-countrymen) 204

20 Richard Roberts, 'Dau bennill yn rhoi ychydig o hanes y gelynion a diriasant i borthladd Abergwaun yn sir Benfro' (Two stanzas giving a little of the story of the enemies who landed in the harbour of Fishguard in Pembroke-shire) 218

21 Thomas Francis, 'Cân am y waredigaeth a gafodd y Brytaniaid o ddwylaw'r Ffrancod gwaedlyd' (A song on the deliverance that the Britons had from the hands of the bloody French) 222

22 G[eorge] S[tephens], 'Cân o glod i'r Arglwydd am ein holl fuddugoliaethau ar fôr ac ar dir' (A song of praise to the Lord for all our victories on sea and on land) 234

23 [George Stephens],'Cân o ganmoliaeth i volunteers y tair sir, sef sir Benfro, sir Aberteifi a sir Gaerfyrddin' (A song of praise to the volunteers of the three counties, namely Pembrokeshire, Cardiganshire and Carmarthenshire) 240

1800

24 Dafydd Evan Morgan, 'Cân o glod i foluntiers Glan Teifi a'u hoffisers' (A song of praise to the volunteers of Glan Teifi and their officers) 246

1804

25 J.P.,'Cân sylweddol, [y]n annog Brydain i gofleidio eu breintiau gwladol a chrefyddol a diwygio am eu beiau' (A substantial song, urging Britain to embrace its secular and religious privileges and to correct its faults) 258

1805

26 John Thomas,'[Cerdd] o ddiolchgar goffadwriaet[h] am y gorfoleddus fuddugoliaeth a dderbyniasom yn ddiweddar ar ein gelynion' (A song of thankful commemoration for the triumphant victory which we received recently over our enemies) 264

27 Robert Morris, 'Cân newydd am y bu[ddugoliaeth]au clodfawr yn erbyn llyngesau cysylltiedig Ffrainc a Sbaen a marwolaeth y digymar a'r llwyddiannus lywydd, Arglwydd Nelson' (A new song about the celebrated victories against the united fleets of France and Spain and the death of the peerless and successful commander, Lord Nelson) 270

?1807

28 Anon., 'Cân o glod i'r milisia deuddeg sir Cymru' (A song of praise to the militia of the twelve counties of Wales) 278

1810

29 Robert Morris, 'Cerdd i milisia cartrefol sir Gaernarfon' (A song to the local militia of Caernarfonshire) 284

30 Evan James, 'Anogaeth i bawb fentro'n galonnog i'r rhyfel yn erbyn y Ffrancod, yn enw Arglwydd Dduw byddinoedd Israel, ac nid yn unig mewn gall[u] dynol' (Encouragement for all to venture valiantly to the war against the French, in the name of the Lord God of the hosts of Israel, and not only in human strength) 292

1811

31 Anon., 'Marwnad i'r degymau yn Ffrainc, a ganwyd gan wr eglwysig o brofiad galarus ar eu hôl' (An elegy for the tithes in France, sung by a churchman in mournful experience after them) 300

32 John Thomas, 'Cerdd newydd ar ddull ymddiddan rhwng rhieni a'u plant, pa rai sydd allan yn y rhyfel presennol' (A new song in the form of a dialogue between parents and their children, who are out in the current war) 306

1812

33 Griffith Williams (Gutyn Peris), '[P]enillion i annerch milwyr cartrefol swydd Gaernarfon, pan flaenorasant ar holl filwyr Brydain i wasanaethu i'r Iwerddon, a chynnig eu gwasanaeth yn erbyn y Ffrancod yn yr Hisbaen yn y flwyddyn 1812. Am yr hyn bethau gwnaed oll yn rifl corps' (Stanzas to address the county soldiers of Caernarfonshire, when they took the lead over the soldiers of the whole of Britain to serve in Ireland, and offered their service against the French in Spain in the year 1812. For these reasons they were all made a rifle corps) 312

1815

34 Ioan Dafydd. 'Cân newydd am ailgymeriad Bonaparte, ynghyd â'i anfoniad i St Helena' (A new song on the retaking of Bonaparte, together with his sending to St Helena) 318

35 Ioan Dafydd. 'Cân o anogaeth i bawb i olygu Duw yn flaenor i'r cynghreirwyr yn Ffrainc' (A song of encouragement for everyone to regard God as leader of the allies in France) 324

36 Thomas Jones,'Cân newydd am y llwyddiant a gafodd ein milwyr ar Bonaparte a'i fyddin yn Ffrainc, y 16,17 a'r 18 o Fehefin diweddaf' (A new song about the success which our soldiers had over Bonaparte and his army in France on the 16th, 17th and 18th of last June) 332

Undated

37 R[obert] Davies, 'Cân milisia Dinbych' (Song of the Denbighshire militia) 340

38 Robert Morris, 'Cerdd i filisia Cymru' (A song to the militia of Wales) 346

Notes to the Texts 355

Appendix: the Ballad Tunes 433

Foreword

i 'Belisle March' (words: no. 4) 434

ii 'Gwêl yr Adeilad'(words: no. 7) 436

iii 'King George's Delight' (words: no. 8) 438

iv 'Tempest of War'(words: no. 11) 440

v 'Duw Gadwo'r Brenin' (words: no. 17) 441

vi 'Y Dôn Fechan' (words: no. 32) 442

vii 'Mentra Gwen' (words: no. 34) 443

viii 'Ymadawiad y Brenin' (words: no. 35) 444

ix 'Trymder' (words: no. 37) 445

Select Bibliography 447

Note to the Indexes 459

Index to the Ballads 460

General Index 468

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