Water Quality: An Introduction

Water Quality: An Introduction

by Claude E. Boyd

Hardcover(3rd ed. 2020)

$89.99
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Overview

This volume is of great importance to humans and other living organisms. The study of water quality draws information from a variety of disciplines including chemistry, biology, mathematics, physics, engineering, and resource management.

University training in water quality is often limited to specialized courses in engineering, ecology, and fisheries curricula. This book also offers a basic understanding of water quality to professionals who are not formally trained in the subject.

The revised third edition updates and expands the discussion, and incorporates additional figures and illustrative problems. Improvements include a new chapter on basic chemistry, a more comprehensive chapter on hydrology, and an updated chapter on regulations and standards.

Because it employs only first-year college-level chemistry and very basic physics, the book is well-suited as the foundation for a general introductory course in water quality. It is equally useful as a guide for self-study and an in-depth resource for general readers.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783030233341
Publisher: Springer International Publishing
Publication date: 09/13/2019
Edition description: 3rd ed. 2020
Pages: 440
Sales rank: 555,692
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x (d)

About the Author

Claude E. Boyd

Auburn University

School of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Aquatic Science

Auburn, AL

USA

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Physical Properties of Water


Introduction


The Water Molecule


Structure


Dipolar nature


Size


Properties of Water


Thermal characteristics


Vapor pressure


Density


Surface phenomena


Viscosity


Elasticity and compressibility


Water pressure


Dielectric constant


Conductivity


Transparency


Conclusions


References



Chapter 2 An Overview of Hydrology


Introduction


The Hydrologic Cycle


Evaporation


Measurement


Rainfall


Measurement


Soil Water


Groundwater


Runoff and Streams


Lakes, Reservoirs, and Ponds


Wetlands


Water Measurements


Overland flow


Stream flow


Volumes of water bodies


Water Budgets and chemical mass balance


Oceans and Estuaries


Conclusions


References




Chapter 3 Water Temperature (new chapter)


Introduction


Energy, Heat, and Temperature


Solar Radiation and Heating


Heat Transfer in Water bodies


Stream Temperatures


Lakes, Reservoirs, and Ponds


Thermal Stratification



Heat budgets


Thermal stratification process


Patterns of lake stratification


Stratification in ponds



Ice cover


Effects of water quality


Temperature in Water Quality


Physical aspects


Chemical reactions


Biological processes


Conclusions


References



Chapter 4 Dissolved Solids


Introduction


Dissolved Solids and Their Measurement


Dissolved or suspended – particle sizes


Major cations and anions


Total dissolved solids


Total dissolved organic matter


Salinity


Specific conductance


Alkalinity and hardness


Cation-Anion Balance


Accuracy checks


Concentrations of Major Ions in Natural Waters


Rainwater


Inland surface water


Groundwater


Coastal and ocean water


Minor Ions and Other Solutes


Relative Abundances of Elements


Total Dissolved Solids and Colligative Properties


Vapor pressure


Freezing and boiling points


Osmotic pressure


Removal of Dissolved Solids


Ion exchange


Activated carbon


Desalination


Conclusions


References



Chapter 5 Particulate Matter, Color, Turbidity, and Light


Introduction


Suspended Particles


Sources


Settling characteristics


Colloidal particles


Humic Substances and Color


Turbidity and Light Penetration


Assessment of Turbidity and Color


Direct turbidity measurement


Suspended solids


Settleable solids


Secchi disk


Color


Visual Aspects of Water Bodies


Suspended Solids Removal


Water shed protection


Sedimentation basins


Coagulation


Filtration


Conclusions


References



Chapter 6 Dissolved Oxygen and Other Gases


Introduction


Atmospheric Pressure


Gas Solubility


Partial pressure


Henry’s law constant and Bunsen coefficient


Weight of air in water


Use of gas solubility tables


Percentage saturation and oxyen tension


The ΔP


Gas Transfer


Stream re-aeration


Concentrations of Dissolved Oxygen


Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in Respiration


Conclusions



References




Chapter 7 Redox Potential


No changes in outline.



Chapter 8 pH, Carbon Dioxide, and Alkalinity


Introduction


pH


The concept


Calculations



pH of natural waters


Carbon Dioxide


Total Alkalinity


Measurement of alkalinity


Sources of alkalinity


Comments on alkalinity equilibria


Buffering


Alkalinity of Natural Waters


Effects on Aquatic Life and Water use


pH


Carbon dioxide


Alkalinity


Conclusions


References



Chapter 9 Acidity (new chapter)


Information


Definition of Acidity


Measurement of Acidity


Sources of Mineral Acidity in Surface Waters


Acid-sulfate soils


Acidic, atmospheric deposition


Acidic mine drainage


Effects of Mineral Acidity on Water Quality


Water quality


Mitigation of Mineral Acidity


Conclusions


References



Chapter 10 Total Hardness


No changes in outline.



Chapter 11 Microorganisms, Macrophytes, and Water Quality


Introduction


Bacteria


Nutrients



Growth


Aerobic respiration


Oxygen stoichiometry in aerobic respiration


Anaerobic respiration



Environmental effects on bacterial growth


Estimating bacterial abundance


Sediment Respiration


Phytoplankton


Biology


Photosynthesis


Biochemical assimilation


Factors controlling phytoplankton growth


Estimating phytoplankton abundance



Effects of phytoplankton on water quality


Measuring Photosynthesis and Respiration


The Compensation Depth


Harmful Algae


Aquatic Macrophytes



Communities


Interactions with phytoplankton


Effects on water quality


Carbon and Oxygen Cycle


Conclusions


References



Chapter 12 Nitrogen


No changes in outline.



Chapter 13 Phosphorus


Introduction


Phosphorus in Aquatic Ecosystems


Phosphorus Chemistry


Dissociation of orthophosphoric acid


Phosphorus-sediment reactions


Organic Phosphorus


Analytical Considerations


Phosphorus Dynamics


Concentrations in water


Plant uptake



Exchange between water and sediment


Conclusions


References



Chapter 14 Eutrophication (new chapter)



Introduction


The Eutrophication Process


Natural causes


Anthropogenic causes


Nitrogen, phosphorus and eutrophication


Critical nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations


The tipping point


Lake eutrophication


Stream eutrophication


Climate change and eutrophication


Effects of Eutrophication


Water quality


Aquatic communities



Water use


Health aspects


Eutrophication Control


Reduction in inputs


Nutrient removal


Prospects for future


Conclusions


References



Chapter 15 Sulfur


Introduction


The Sulfur Cycle


Sulfur Transformations


Plant uptake and mineralization


Oxidations



Reductions


Sulfide


Sulfur Concentrations


Conclusions


References



Chapter 16 Micronutrients and Other Trace Elements


No changes in outline.



Chapter 17 Water Supply (new chapter)


Introduction


The World’s Water


Available and Sustainable Freshwater


The water footprint


Domestic Water Use


Human water requirements



Water quality and human health


Bottled water


Industrial Water Use


Agricultural Water Use


Plant crops


Livesk


Food processing


Ecosystem Water Requirements


Water levels



Water flow


Water quality


Water Bodies for Landscape and Recreational Purposes


Water Shortages: Future Prospects


Conclusions


References



Chapter 18 Water Pollution


Introduction


Overview of Water Pollution


Inorganic Solids and Turbidity


Organic Pollution


Biochemical Oxygen Demand


Nutrient Pollution


Toxins


Biological Pollution


Groundwater Pollution


Wetland Destruction


Pollution Control


Contamination by Pharmaceuticals


Thermal Discharges


Conclusions



References



Chapter 19 Water Quality Regulations

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