War Of Hearts And Minds

War Of Hearts And Minds

by James Jouppi

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Overview

Under the best of conditions, the Peace Corps experience is somewhat like being parachuted into a human drama unfolding in a different culture. The volunteer struggles to be understood, but his attempts can be for naught if he misunderstands the framework of his role. The only way to really understand the framework of one's Peace Corps role is to live inside it, as did author James Jouppi.

In August of 1971, Jouppi arrived in Thailand as part of Peace Corps Thailand Group 38, a civil engineering group slated to work in the most communist-sensitive and most poverty-stricken areas of Thailand for Thailand's Community Development Department. In Backward Buildup, Jouppi documents the challenges of working inside the Peace Corps system, both prior to his work areas being designated red and after that time as well.

Augmented with maps, photographs, and letters, Backward Buildup offers a compelling look into both the politics of Nixon-era America and that of staunchly anti-communist Thailand as it fought a shadow war adjoining the one that was raging in Vietnam and Laos, before projecting into the present and providing insights for new strategies in the future.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781462042357
Publisher: iUniverse, Incorporated
Publication date: 10/25/2011
Pages: 652
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.44(d)

Read an Excerpt

WAR OF HEARTS AND MINDS

An American Memoir
By James Jouppi

iUniverse, Inc.

Copyright © 2011 James Jouppi
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-1-4620-4235-7


Chapter One

Timeline

(Note that italicized entries concern events which occurred in Thailand. Italicized words in later chapters are defined in the glossary at the end.)

Dec 1, 1942 Founding of CPT (Communist Party of Thailand)

1954 According to the Final Declaration of the Geneva Conference, endorsed by every nation at the Conference except the United States, Vietnam is divided into two zones as a cease fire accord to separate French troops from those of Ho Chi Minh. According the Final Declaration, this is a "provisional military demarcation line" that "should not in any was be interpreted as constituting a political or territorial boundary."

April 1954-1957 Daniel Ellsberg serves as a lieutenant in the United States Marines. (Wikipedia).

1959 Ellsberg begins working for the Rand Corporation, a nonprofit research organization whose entire focus is the military aspects of the Cold War.

1960 Thailand initiates a national community development program designed to bring about a closer partnership between the Thai government and Thai citizens at the local level.

March 1, 1961 President Kennedy signs Executive Order 10924, creating Peace Corps.

Fall of 1961 Daniel Ellsberg, as part of a high level Pentagon task force, visits the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) in Vietnam with a "go anywhere, see anything" kind of clearance. (Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers, by Daniel Ellsberg, Penguin Books, 2002, p. 3)

Jan. 1962 Peace Corps Thailand Group 1 arrives in Thailand.

1964 Ellsberg joins the Department of Defense as a special assistant to John McNaughton, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs.

1964 Thailand's Accelerated Rural Development Program (ARD) is launched with the signing of an agreement between the Thai government and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) mission to Thailand (USOM) for the purpose of negating the threat of the CPT (Communist Party of Thailand).

July 30 and 31, 1964 CIA owned Nastys (purchased from Norway) shell two of North Vietnam's coastal islands. (Secrets, p. 13)

Aug. 2, 1964 In order to demonstrate America's rejection of North Vietnam's claims of limits of American "freedom of the seas" and to provoke North Vietnam to turn on coast defense radar so that American destroyers can plot their defenses in preparation for possible air or sea attacks, the United States sends the Maddox, a patrol boat commanded by Captain John J. Herrick, within eight miles of the North Vietnamese mainland and within four miles of their islands. (Secrets, p.13)

Aug. 2, 1964 North Vietnamese P1 boats chase the Maddox back into International Waters and fire torpedoes, all of which miss the Maddox. The Maddox is successful in driving them off. (Secrets, p. 13)

Aug. 2, 1964 After being told of the daylight attack on the Maddox, President Johnson discusses the results of the July 31 covert attacks on North Vietnams' islands and approves the more covert raids by CIA Nastys for the nights of August 3 and August 5. (Secrets, p. 16)

10:42 AM Aug 4, 1964 (Washington time) Captain John J. Herrick begins sending urgent cables to the Pentagon indicating he is under attack by North Vietnamese patrol boats. A steady stream of combat updates lasts for two hours, then tapers off for another hour and suddenly stops. (Secrets, p. 7-9)

6 PM (approximately) Aug. 4, 1964 Captain Herrick sends a cable indicating that all but his first torpedo report should be considered doubtful because of a suspicion that his sonar man was not hearing missiles but rather the Maddox's own propeller beat. (Much later, after being shown evidence from the Maddox's log, Herrick is convinced that his long-held conviction that at least the first torpedo report had been valid was unfounded.) (Secrets, p. 10)

11:37 PM Aug. 4, 1964 Johnson informs the American public on national television that the North Vietnamese, for the second time in two days, have attacked U.S. warships on routine patrol in International Waters. He calls this a "deliberate" pattern of "naked aggression," and says that evidence for the second attack, like the first, was "unequivocal" and that it had been "unprovoked." He says that the United States, by responding in order to deter any repetition, was responding in order to deter North Vietnam and to keep the war from growing wider. (Ellsberg, Secrets, p. 12)

Aug. 7, 1964 Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution authorizing all necessary measures to repel attacks against U.S. forces and all steps necessary for the defense of U.S. allies in Southeast Asia.

Aug. 7, 1965 Thai Communist insurgents launch an assault on security forces at Na Bua village in Nakohn Panome's That Panome District. This is later referred to as Gun-Firing Day.

Oct. 1966 Near the end of the flight home after a fact-finding mission to Vietnam, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara summons Daniel Ellsberg to the rear of the plane to help him settle an argument he's been having with presidential assistant Bob Komer. Ellsberg's account of what then happened is as follows.

McNamara: "Dan, you're the one who can settle this. Komer here is saying that we've made a lot of progress in pacification. I say that things are worse than they were a year ago. What do you say?"

Ellsberg: "Well, Mr. Secretary, I'm most impressed with how much the same things are as they were a year ago. They were pretty bad then, but I wouldn't say it was worse now, just about the same."

McNamara (triumphantly): "That proves what I'm saying! We've put more than a hundred thousand troops into the country over the last year, and there's been no improvement. Things aren't any better at all. That means the underlying situation is really worse! Isn't that right?"

Ten minutes later, once on the ground, McNamara strides over to the mikes and says to the crowd of reporters, "Gentlemen, I've just come back from Vietnam, and I'm glad to be able to tell you that we're showing great progress in every dimension of our effort. I'm very encouraged by everything I've seen and heard on my trip ..." (Secrets, pp. 140, 141)

July 1967 Ellsberg resigns from his position with the Department of Defense and returns to the Rand Corporation.

Mid 1967 Secretary of Defense McNamara commissions a report officially entitled History of U.S. Decision-making in Vietnam 1945-68, since known as The Pentagon Papers—a massive top-secret history of the United States role in Indochina. The work takes a year and a half. The result is approximately 3,000 pages of narrative history and more than 4,000 pages of appended documents—an estimated total of 2.5 million words in 47 volumes. The report reveals that "once the basic objective of policy was set, the internal debate on Vietnam from 1950 until mid-1967 dealt almost entirely with how to reach those objectives rather than with the basic direction of policy. The study relates that American governments from the Truman Administration onward felt it necessary to take action to prevent Communist control over all of Vietnam. As a rationale for policy, the domino theory—that if South Vietnam fell, other countries would inevitably follow—is repeated in endless variations for nearly two decades." (The Pentagon Papers, Bantam Books, July, 1971, p. xix)

The {Pentagon Papers] study ... was formally open-ended, and work continued into early 1969. Its authors and supervisors decided to end it with Johnson's speech of March 31, 1968 in which he announced he would not seek re-election. A three page Epilogue at the end of the study begins with the April 3, 1968 announcement by Hanoi that it would negotiate with the United States and goes on: "The first step on what would undoubtedly be a long and tortuous road to peace apparently had been taken. In one dramatic action, President Johnson had for a time removed the issue of Vietnam from domestic political contention." (Secrets, pp. 226, 227)

Feb. 1968 McNamara resigns from the Johnson Administration to become President of the World Bank.

Nov. 1968 After his appointment by President–Elect Richard Nixon, to become the National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger asks Harold Rowen, President of Rand, for a study of Vietnam "options" to prepare for his first National Security Council meeting in January of 1969. Rowen asks Daniel Ellsberg to direct the study. (Secrets, p. 231)

Dec. 27, 1968 After going over Rand's Options Study with Kissinger, Ellsberg talks to him about the of effect having clearances above top secret and of having access to information one hasn't previously known existed. He tells Kissinger that much of this hidden information is inaccurate and misleading, but that having access to it can cause one to stop listening to and learning from those who don't have such access. He tells him that dealing with a person who doesn't have clearances can be a process of lying carefully to him about what one knows and warns him of how he'll become incapable of learning from most people in the world no matter how much experience they may have in their particular areas that may be much greater than his own. According to Ellsberg, Kissinger listened to his long warning without interruption. (Secrets, pp. 237-239)

July 20, 1969 President Nixon makes an historic interplanetary telephone call to Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldred, Apollo 11 astronauts, shortly after they landed on the moon. "Because of what you have done," Nixon says, "the heavens have become part of man's world and, as you talk to us from the Sea of Tranquility, it inspires us to redouble our efforts to bring peace and tranquility to earth."

"It is a great honor," Armstrong replies, "for us to be representing not only the United States but men of peace of all nations." (Apollo 7 Mission Log)

Sept. 1969 Ellsberg reads the Pentagon Papers document in its entirety for the first time. In so doing, he learns that every president from Truman to Nixon had purposely misled the American public and Congress about what was going on in Vietnam. He comes to believe that the Vietnam War, for all intents and purposes, had been, from its inception, a war whose terms had been dictated by presidents who had shared the truth as they understood it only with their closest and most loyal advisors. He also comes to believe that President Nixon has no intention of ending the Vietnam War; that his strategy is to placate the American public by gradually removing American troops and reducing American casualties even while subduing North Vietnam with ever greater bombing strikes if they try to take advantage of the decreased American presence on the ground. (Secrets, p. 274)

Oct. 1, 1969 Daniel Ellsberg opens the top-secret safe in the corner of his office, removes a portion of The Pentagon Papers, brings it home, and begins the laborious process of photocopying all 7,000 pages. (Secrets, p. 299)

October 8, 1969 Ellsberg and five other Rand employees send a letter to the New York Times expressing their belief that the United States should end its participation in the Vietnam War and withdraw all troops within a year. (Secrets, pp. 310-313)

April 30, 1970 Nixon tells the nation that American troops are invading Cambodia

May 4, 1970 Members of the Ohio National Guard shoot into a group of demonstrating students. Four are killed.

May 9, 1970 During an impromptu visit to the Lincoln Memorial, Nixon tells students who were there to protest his decision to invade Cambodia and about his intention to begin a relationship with mainland China. (Integrity: Good People, Bad Choices, and Life Lessons from the White House, by Egil "Bud" Krogh, Public Affairs, 2007, p. 13, 14)

Late August 1970 In a private meeting with Ellsberg, Kissinger speaks contemptuously of a group of his consultants who had resigned in protest against the invasion of Cambodia, dismissing their presumption that they could judge policy without having the clearances to look at classified information. (Secrets, p. 348)

Jan. 14, 1971 Don Oberdorfer of the Washington Post calls Ellsberg and tells him that Kissinger, after being asked what the origin of current Vietnam policy had been, responded by saying certain people, such as Ellsberg, who had been crucial in the development of Vietnam policy were now ironically great critics of that very policy. (Secrets, p. 350)

Jan. 29-31, 1971 During a conference at MIT, Kissinger seeks out Ellsberg and apologizes for his comments to Oberdorfer, but later, after Kissinger's speech, Ellsberg closes the question and answer period by asking Kissinger for his best estimate of the number of Indochinese who will be killed by pursuing his policy over the next twelve months. Kissinger attempts to diffuse the situation by suggesting the question is inappropriate, but Ellsberg asks it twice more. When it becomes apparent that Kissinger does not intend to answer Ellsberg's question, the student moderator ends the question and answer period so Kissinger can return to Washington. (Secrets, Ellsberg, p. 353)

May 1971 The last large anti-war protest, called the May Day protest, the last large anti-war protest is held in Washington, DC on the first three days of May. On May 2, the Nixon administration cancels the protesters' permit. 12,000 protesters are arrested. (Wikipedia)

June 13, 1971 The New York Times begins publishing a series of articles based on The Pentagon Papers.

June 15, 1971 A temporary restraining order issued by a Federal District judge prevents The New York Times from publishing new chapters of The Pentagon Papers.

June 28, 1971 In its cover story about the release of the Pentagon Papers, Time magazine indicates, "Robert McNamara is said to hope that the entire report [The Pentagon Papers] will be declassified soon for use in libraries and archives, but feels that the sensational way in which the documents were released is tragic." ("Three Principals Defend Themselves," Time, June 28, 1971)

June 28, 1971 Daniel Ellsberg appears at the federal court building in Boston, is arraigned for his role in leaking The Pentagon Papers, and released on bail.

(Continues...)



Excerpted from WAR OF HEARTS AND MINDS by James Jouppi Copyright © 2011 by James Jouppi. Excerpted by permission of iUniverse, Inc.. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Table of Contents

Contents

Location Maps....................ix
Preface....................xiii
Introduction....................xv
Timeline....................1
Summer of 1971, New York City....................10
Timeline (continued)....................20
A Time When Things Were Never Quite as They Seemed....................21
Arriving Fully Loaded....................25
Peace Corps Thailand Group 38....................35
Sept. 1971, Changed by a Watergate Experience....................43
Nov. 1971, Sent to Nakohn Panome....................50
Peace Corps Co-workers Boone and Winston....................56
Goke Dtong Village....................63
Dec. 1971-April 1972, Teo and My First Year Projects....................67
1969-1971, Santee's Peace Corps....................72
Per Diem Reports....................76
Timeline (continued)....................80
Nov., Dec. 1972, Planning Thai Funded Projects....................81
Timeline (continued)....................88
Jan.-April 1973, Nong Bua, the Project Beyond the Tripwire....................90
Prudence....................101
March 1973, The Plow Demonstration....................109
April 1973, Completing the Project and Smashing a Cobra....................114
Working Conditions Elsewhere....................119
1966, Louis Lomax's Thailand....................122
Bargirls....................127
Becoming a Peace Corps Pariah....................129
June 1973-Sept. 1973, Thai Language Lessons from Noy....................135
August 1973, A Trip to the Grome....................139
Photographs (1972, 1973)....................147
Sept. 1973, The Home Leave....................159
Oct., Nov. 1973, Courting a High Class Woman....................165
Nov. 1973, The Irrigation Project....................177
1970-1973, Winston Taking Territory....................179
The Country Team....................191
Kraengji in Sakohn Nakohn....................194
Timeline (continued)....................202
Nov. 1973, A Plan to Train New Volunteers....................203
Transition to Group 46....................213
Nov. 1973, (Almost) Crossing the Line to Teach English....................216
Nov. 1973, Begging Me Just to Leave....................226
Mike and Sunee....................235
Nov. 1973, Noy Asks Me to Give Up....................240
Nov.-Dec., 1973 Winston Changes His Plan....................245
Dec. 1973, Allowing Winston To Have His Way....................250
Dec. 1973, A Plan to Meditate....................272
Dec. 1973-March 1974, The Letters....................281
Winter of 1974, Denver....................313
March 1974, The Ice Goes Out, the River Opens Up....................326
April 1974, Placing Telephone Calls to Thailand....................332
April 1974, A Meeting at the Brown Palace....................345
April, May, 1974, A Plan to Work for Sanure....................353
May 1974, Everything Is Already Settled....................363
May 17, 1974, Play Things....................379
May, June 1974, Learning More About Two-headed Birds....................386
Timeline (continued)....................401
July, August 1974, The Gideon Connection....................402
Photographs (2007, 1973, 1974)....................425
Timeline (continued)....................428
1974-1977, America, Land of Conflict Diffusion....................431
1977-1979, Church Life and Writing in Colorado....................445
1979-1983, Michigan and Georgia....................457
Timeline (continued)....................462
1985, Thailand....................463
1986, Fort Rucker....................480
1987, Minnesota....................483
1987, The Devastating Critique....................493
1988, Dr. Wyatt Never Opened My Package....................495
1991, Tom Hanks Didn't Really Care....................500
1994, Wisdom Hunting in California....................505
1996, Smoking or Non....................526
Timeline (continued)....................539
Tarnishing Peace Corps' Image....................540
Just An All American Boy....................550
Researching the Movie....................565
1990-2001, Déjà vu in Grand Rapids....................571
Gone With the Wind....................585
Photographs (1985, 1993, 2007)....................603
Glossary....................611

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