Thermodynamic States Of Equilibrium In Dilute Solutions

Thermodynamic States Of Equilibrium In Dilute Solutions

by Max Planck, A. P. Willis

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I. Electrolytic Dissociation of Water.

II. Dissociation of a Dissolved Electrolyte.

III. Vaporization or Solidification of a Pure Liquid.

IV. The Vaporization or Solidification of a Solution of Non-Volatile Substances.

V. Vaporization of a Solution of Volatile Substances.

VI. The Dissolved Substance only Passes over into the Second Phase.

VII. Osmotic Pressure.



Thermodynamic States Of Equilibrium In Dilute Solutions.


In the lecture of yesterday I sought to make clear the fact that the essential, and therefore the final division of all processes occurring in nature, is into reversible and irreversible processes, and the characteristic difference between these two kinds of processes, as I have further separated them, is that in irreversible processes the entropy increases, while in all reversible processes it remains constant. Today I am constrained to speak of some of the consequences of this law which will illustrate its rich fruitfulness. They have to do with the question of the laws of thermodynamic equilibrium. Since in nature the entropy can only increase, it follows that the state of a physical configuration which is completely isolated, and in which the entropy of the system possesses an absolute maximum, is necessarily a state of stable equilibrium, since for it no further change is possible. How deeply this law underlies all physical and chemical relations has been shown by no one better and more completely than by John Willard Gibbs, whose name, not only in America, but in the whole world will be counted among those of the most famous theoretical physicists of all times; to whom, to my sorrow, it is no longer possible for me to tender personally my respects. It would be gratuitous for me, here in the land of his activity, to expatiate fully on the progress of his ideas, but you will perhaps permit me to speak in the lecture of today of some of the important applications in which thermodynamic research, based on Gibbs works, can be advanced beyond his results.

Product Details

BN ID: 2940012794772
Publisher: Leila's Books
Publication date: 07/20/2011
Series: Eight Lectures On Theoretical Physics , #6
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Sales rank: 944,958
File size: 575 KB

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