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"It's hard to explain. It's a constant barrage. ... Henry [Kissinger] and others go around wringing their hands for the President. ... After a while you lose your perspective. ... All of the things that you think about later you become inured to while in the White House. It isn't a matter of constant moral torment when you're there."
— Roger Morris, White House aide
"What those fellows [the Plumbers] did was no crime; they ought to get a medal for going after Ellsberg."
— President Nixon, April 18, 1973
The Vietnam War rancored the American political scene increasingly as it became clear that the new Administration was unable to deliver a tidy conclusion to the conflict. The White House could not keep sensitive internal information from surfacing in the press, and increasingly saw itself as persecuted by antiwar left-wingers and black militants.
Quickly slipping into a siege mentality, the White House developed a ravenous appetite for covert intelligence. The demonstrations, random acts of violence, and lawlessness of antiwar activists seemed to Nixon to justify the sort of rough, gutter warfare usually relegated only to the world of professional agents in the international struggle against Soviet-backed communism. As existing U.S. government agencies were unable or unwilling to cooperate, Nixon began chartering his own spies ("the Plumbers") in secret.
Right after the 1968 election, Nixon started wiretapping White House aides and newsmen. At Nixon's insistence, aide Tom Huston drew up plans for a sweeping scheme of internal espionage, complete with "black bag" jobs and sabotage. When former Pentagon official Daniel Ellsberg gave classified documents (the Pentagon Papers) to The New York Times, the White House hounded him viciously.
1. To what was Attorney General Kleindienst referring when he said "that zoo up the street"?
2. Certain White House aides may have thought that they were above the law, but none ever stated so publicly. True or false?
3. About whom was White House director of communications Ken Clawson speaking when he said the following: "There is no policy [he] is responsible for, yet there is no policy he doesn't have a hand in somehow"?
a) Haldeman b) Colson c) Dean
4. In the following, is Haldeman describing Ehrlichman or is Ehrlichman describing Haldeman: "... my crafty friend who loved intrigue and was given [to] the more devious approach"?
5. What man — an expert on the esoteric legal points of municipal-bond financing, recognized as without peer in this legal specialty by 1967 — allowed Nixon to join his profitable practice, and in less than six years had ruined his family life, nearly lost his wife, watched his law practice dissipate, was no longer speaking to the President, faced multiple indictments on a host of criminal charges, and finally went to jail?
6. What key Nixon advisor disavowed participation in White House wiretapping and knowledge of the Plumbers, and, by cultivating his public image as the one solid higher-up in the besieged White House, managed to avoid serious investigation by Watergate prosecutors and the Senate Watergate Committee?
7. What member of the Nixon Administration had the following nicknames: The Cold Bastard, Chief of Dirty Tricks, King of the Hardhats, Mr. Dirty Tricks, Hatchet Man, Superloyalist, The Power Mechanic, and Chief Ass Kicker?
8. What man saw his legal stature rise, his practice grow to include clients like Atlantic-Richfield and United Air Lines, became Nixon's personal attorney (preparing even his tax returns and residential purchase documents), raised money for Nixon's campaigns, ran the enormous post1968 campaign surplus as a slush fund to finance dirty tricks, acted as bagman for hush money to silence Watergate burglars, and finally went to jail?
9. What member of the Administration had the following nicknames: Iron Butt, Nicks, Gloomy Gus, The Mad Monk, Le Grande Fromage, Thelma's Husband, and Rufus?
10. What was Bebe Rebozo's nickname for Nixon?
11. What man refused a full scholarship to Harvard because he was "turned off at the bomb-throwers in Harvard Square," played a marginal role in the 1968 campaign, yet in one year under Haldeman'ssponsorship became the focal point for White House "dirty tricks," and, before pleading guilty to obstruction of justice, became a born-again Christian?
12. What member of the Administration had these nicknames: Mr. Inside, The Prussian, Lord High Executioner, Nixon's SOB, and Chief Frog Man?
13. What man, a personal friend of Nixon's for twenty-seven years, and the director of communications for the Executive Branch for five years, did Nixon praise lavishly in public while privately saying to Haldeman, "You've just not got to let _____ ever set up a meeting again. ... He just opens it up and sits there with eggs on his face. ... He just doesn't have his head screwed on, Bob. ... He just sort of blubbers around."
14. What member of the Administration was variously nicknamed The Pipe, The Big Enchilada, and Old Stone Face?
15. What pair of Nixon Administration individuals had the following nicknames: Berlin Wall, Katzenjammer Kids, German Shepherds, Nazis, and Hans & Fritz?
16. Which of the following members of the Administration was not a lawyer?
a) Nixon b) Haldeman c) Ehrlichman d) Mardian e) Mitchell f) Kleindienst g) Young h) Dean i) Colson j) Agnew k) Kalmbach l) Krogh m) Liddy n) Strachan
17. Which one of the following presidential aides was not recruited from the Los Angeles office of the J. Walter Thompson advertising agency?
a) Haldeman b) Chapin c) Ziegler d) Dean e) Higby
18. Which of the following advertising accounts did Haldeman not manage for J. Walter Thompson?
a) Sani-Flush b) Airwick c) Black Flag
19. What was Jeb Magruder's profession when he was first approached about working in the Nixon White House?
a) Securities litigator with Webster & Sheffield in New York b) Management consultant with Strategic Planning Associates in Washington c) Buyer of women's accessories for the Broadway Department Store in Los Angeles
20. Nixon's press secretary, Ron Ziegler, once worked as a tour guide on the "Jungle Ride" at Disneyland. True or false?
21. What principle did Colson tell White House aides served to guide him throughout his publicservice career?
a) "Public access to government documents is essential to the successful operation of a democracy."
22. What was the average age of the following members of the Nixon Administration at the time of their appointments: John Dean, Fred Fielding, Egil Krogh, Gordon Strachan, Bruce Kehrli, Hugh Sloan, Robert Odle, Robert Reisner, and Dwight Chapin?
23. Who said about Colson, "He says hop and you hop"?
a) Nixon b) Colson's wife c) Rose Mary Woods
24. What pair of individuals were nicknamed "Colson's Gunners"?
25. Who termed Colson "viciously loyal"?
a) Nixon b) Colson c) Colson's father
26. What was the "tickler"?
27. Which of the following films was not shown in the White House by Nixon aides during the Nixon Administration?
a) The "Checkers speech"
28. What was presidential "deniability"?
29. What did Deep Throat call the willingness of the President's aides to fight dirty for keeps regardless of how such behavior might harm the country?
a) "Sanctimonious thuggery"
30. Despite sensationalistic publicity, there never was a formal, written "enemies list." True or false?
31. Given that the White House had a plan to "screw" political enemies by using various government agencies, what was the name of the plan it had to reward friends?
a) "Incumbency-Responsiveness Program"
32. What did Dean find to be an "exciting prospect" in his famous meeting with Nixon on September 15, 1972?
a) Nixon's beating McGovern in the November election b) Keeping tabs on the Administration's enemies and getting them after the election c) Dean's being made one of the Plumbers
33. What peculiar Watergate-related tie bound Paul Newman, Mary McGrory, Allard Lowenstein, and Leonard Woodcock?
34. Why did Dean suggest to Nixon that the IRS would resist being used by Nixon to attack his political enemies?
a) There were too many Democrats in the agency.
35. To whom was Nixon referring when he said the following? "He didn't get Secretary of Treasury because he has nice blue eyes. It was a goddamn favor to him to get that job. ... If he doesn't do it [i.e., let the IRS be used for political purposes], he is out as Secretary of Treasury, and that is the way it is going to be played."
36. Whom did Magruder assign to disrupt an antiwar, anti-Hoover demonstration outside the Capitol on May 4, 1972?
37. What souvenir did Colson want Liddy to bring to Nixon from the demonstration?
a) A "Jail to the Chief" poster b) A Vietcong flag c) A "Peace with Honor" button
38. Colson suggested to Nixon that some "thugs" be rounded up to break up demonstrations. Where did Colson expect to get thugs?
a) Anti-Castro Cuban exiles b) The Teamsters Union c) "Hardhats for Nixon"
39. Colson recruited Watergate burglars Barker and Sturgis to show up uninvited at Cuban exile meetings in May 1972 for what purpose?
a) To recruit more Plumbers b) To turn the meetings into pro-Nixon rallies c) To recruit helpers to launder money
40. In addition to participating in the Watergate burglary, the Cubans were also paid to create riots, even to urinate and defecate in public. True or false?
41. Who was Richard M. Dixon, and did the White House really care?
42. Nixon approved the Huston plan, which contained provisions for government-sponsored illegal entry, mail openings, etc., to combat radical elements in American society. True or false?
43. The White House successfully implemented the "Huston plan." True or false?
44. Was the Huston plan formally canceled by Nixon?
45. Tom Huston did not regard as illegal that part of his plan which called for surreptitious entry and other such procedures for gathering domestic intelligence. True or false?
46. What congressman put the entire details of the Huston plan into the Congressional Record?
a) Rep. William S. Moorhead b) Rep. Carlos Moorhead c) Rep. Philip Crane
47. In 1970, what U.S. government agency concluded that there was "no substantial evidence to support the Nixon Administration's view that foreign governments were supplying undercover agents and funds to radicals and Black Panther groups in the U.S.," thus directly contradicting an underlying justification for the Huston plan?
a) CIA b) FBI c) NSC
48. Why was the White House "non-legal internal investigations unit" nicknamed the Plumbers?
49. Which one of the following was not a Plumber?
a) Young b) Colson c) Krogh d) Hunt e) Liddy
50. Hunt testified before the Senate Watergate Committee that during his twenty-one years with the CIA, he "was trained in the techniques of physical and electronic surveillance, photography, document forgery, and surreptitious entries into guarded premises for photography and installation of electronic devices. I participated in and had the responsibility for a number of such entries. ..." Despite his qualifications, Hunt told the committee that he was hired to perform entirely different services by the White House. True or false?
51. Why did the White House use Hunt and Liddy for undercover work when it could have gone to the FBI?
52. Which of the following was not a term by which Hunt and Liddy referred to the Plumbers?
a) Roto-Rooters b) Room 16
53. Each individual Plumber owed his position to connections with a White House superior, and hence represented that superior's interests and attitude. Match the Plumber to the appropriate White House official.
a) Kissinger 1) Liddy b) Ehrlichman 3) Young c) Mitchell 2) Hunt d) Colson 4) Krogh
54. For which of the following were the Plumbers responsible?
a) Bugging the Democratic National Committee b) Bugging the Chilean embassy c) Breaking into Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist's office d) All of the above
55. Finish Ehrlichman's lament about Kissinger and their respective roles with the Plumbers: "Kissinger gets the Nobel Prize and ..."
56. Where did Hunt expect to get LSD?
a) CIA b) Haight-Ashbury c) Colson
57. In a taped conversation in July 1971, Colson told Hunt that Ellsberg was getting support from "the real enemy" (meaning the Soviet Union). What does the tape reveal that Hunt assumed Colson meant by the "real enemy"?
a) The Democratic National Committee b) Cuba c) SDS (Students for a Democratic Society)
58. How did Colson and Liddy plan to disrupt a Daniel Ellsberg fund-raiser in September 1971?
a) Sneak in the Cubans dressed as waiters and drug Ellsberg's soup.
59. A memorandum from Ehrlichman to Colson dated August 27, 1971, requested a "game plan" on "Hunt-Liddy Special Project Number One." What was the project?
60. Which of the following was not a reason that Nixon believed accounted for FBI Director Hoover's apparent reluctance to press the investigation of Ellsberg?
a) Hoover never passed up an opportunity to let Nixon know that Hoover ultimately held the high cards.
61. Nixon ordered the break-in at the office of Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist. True or false?
62. Why would the CIA have given Hunt disguises and other assistance if he was not working for the CIA?
a) Ehrlichman so requested.
63. When Ehrlichman asked General Robert Cushman (Deputy Director of the CIA) to "lend a hand" to Hunt, why did Cushman not ask if Hunt's mission involved an American citizen or would occur in the United States?
64. While waiting on a park bench at the scene of the Ellsberg break-in, Liddy abandoned his hippie wig disguise. Why?
a) The wig became itchy.
65. How did the CIA get pictures of a grinning Liddy in front of the building where Ellsberg's psychiatrist had an office?
a) The CIA followed the Plumbers.
66. What was unusual about a pair of thick glasses and a piece of lead given to Liddy by the CIA for the Ellsberg job?
67. Liddy carried a knife during the Ellsberg break-in; he would not have used it to hurt anyone, however. True or false?
68. Who said the following to Assistant Attorney General Henry Petersen, then investigating the Watergate burglary, concerning the Ellsberg break-in: "I know about that. That is a national security matter. ... Your mandate is to investigate Watergate"?
a) Nixon b) L. Patrick Gray c) Kissinger
69. Dean reported that the President was angered at the supposed contents of Morton Halperin's safe (Halperin was a former staff member of the National Security Council, who was then working for the Brookings Institution). Who ordered "everyone to rifle" his files and "get 'em back"?
a) Nixon b) Colson c) Liddy
70. Besides antiwar activities, what other reason did the White House have for continuing its wiretapping of Morton Halperin long after he had left the White House?
a) There was evidence that Halperin was contacting North Vietnamese agents.
b) Halperin became a member of Democratic presidential candidate Muskie's foreignpolicy staff.
c) Wiretap summaries revealed that Halperin was going to release false information concerning the U.S. role in Vietnam.
71. How did Colson plan to get his hands on Morton Halperin's documents, which were then kept in the Brookings Institution?
72. How did Hunt and Liddy intend to break into the Brookings Institution?
73. According to Liddy, why didn't the White House approve the plan?
a) Haldeman was afraid that the Cubans would not be convincing firemen.
74. Nixon was aware of Colson's proposed plan to firebomb the Brookings Institution. True or false?
Deep Throat Question
75. What member of the Nixon Administration said, "... you'll find that Liddy and Hunt had reputations that are the lowest. The absolute lowest. Hiring these two was immoral. They got exactly what they wanted."
Excerpted from "The Watergate Quiz Book"
Copyright © 1983 W. S. Moorhead.
Excerpted by permission of Henry Holt and Company.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
Table of Contents
1 THE PLUMBERS,
3 THE BREAK-IN,
4 THE COVER-UP,
5 THE COVER-UP UNRAVELS,
6 THE PRESS,
7 THE SATURDAY NIGHT MASSACRE,
8 THE TAPES,
9 THE END,
10 AFTERMATH AND REFLECTIONS,
SCORING THE QUIZ,