Whether given a second chance through purchase, adoption, or rescue, the horse in the “wrong” situation should have a chance to find his way to the “right one.” Veterinarian Dr. Stacie Boswell’s goal is to restore health and comfort to every horse in transition, and to help him learn how to function as the horse he is expected to be―from the Thoroughbred off the track to the grade pony from the field down the road. In her unparalleled reference, Dr. Boswell explains:
- Where they come from: The origins of the unwanted, neglected, or abused horse.
- Travel and intake: Safety, regulations, identification, and quarantine.
- Nutrition, dentistry, and colic: Body Condition Scoring (BCS),
- Refeeding Syndrome, nutrition, long-term weight management, colic prevention and treatment, and dealing with gastric ulcers.
- Vaccination and parasite management: Deworming, identifying and treating skin conditions, viruses, and respiratory diseases.
- Hoof care, lameness, and wounds: Evaluating hoof structure and the horse’s movement, trimming and shoeing, abscesses, laminitis, arthritis, and bandaging.
- Birth control: Castration and mare management.
- Foal rescue: The birthing process, working with orphans, halter training, and hoof handling.
- The “down” horse: Identifying and treating underlying problems, rolling a horse, bed sores, slings, and quality of life considerations.
- Working in disaster scenarios: Preparedness, identification, transportation, communication, and first aid.
- Euthanasia: Compassionate guidelines, procedures, and aftercare.
- Unique training considerations: Coming into work according to BCS.
- How horses sense and respond: Equine vision, training principles, and working with the fearful horse.
- Developing a relationship with your rescue: Social integration, developing trust, overcoming fear, handling feet and legs, halter training adult horses, preparing a horse for medical care, groundwork, and riding.
In Dr. Boswell has compiled hundreds of case studies highlighting the areas of concern in the horse “in need,” and in these pages details proactive methods of handling common medical problems and health issues, from nutrition and dentistry to deworming and hoofcare to traumatic injury and emergency rescue scenarios. She explains the ways that, as a new horse is rehabilitated physically, specific training techniques can help him adapt to the positive changes in his care and environment.
In the United States alone, it is estimated that almost 150,000 horses per year are “unwanted.” This number grows exponentially when you consider horses worldwide. Horses that are old, injured, sick, unmanageable, or fail to meet expectations deserve to be treated with dignity and given every chance for a comfortable life in the company of humans. Dr. Boswell’s book helps make this possible.
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About the Author
Read an Excerpt
Where They Come From: Horses in Need
If you spend time in the world of horses you have seen heart-wrenching cases of abuse or neglect, either in person or online. For me, it is impossible to forget the horses’ sad faces or how thin they are. These horses are desperate for food, water, and shelter. This book starts with exploring how horses find themselves lacking in basic needs. (fig. 1.1)
Rescue is defined as “to free or deliver from confinement, violence, danger, or evil.” (ref. 1.1) In this book, a rescued horse is one that came to you from a situation where his physical or mental needs were not met. My goal is to help you provide him with a home that will meet those needs.
Whether you volunteer at a horse rescue, buy a horse from an auction yard, find an abandoned or stray horse, (fig. 1.2) or otherwise obtain a needy equine, this is the book for you. You will get this horse out of his current plight. You want to do everything you can to help him, and he will need more than just food. A horse’s situation can be incredibly heartbreaking, and it’s likely that nobody else will help him. When you take him home, you may find that he has a respiratory illness, an injury, or behavioral problems. He may have all of those things at one time. According to Tracy McGonigle, Executive Director of the Hooved Animal Humane Society in Woodstock, Illinois, the “number one ailment seen ... is malnourishment, followed by foot issues, then emotional issues.” (ref. 1.2)
Acquiring a rescue horse is different than buying a healthy, sound horse who has had excellent care throughout his life. Why rescue a horse? You can be deeply rewarded by the horse. We can give him freedom, love, and comfort, and we can make our world a better place.
Once you have your needy equine, you need to know where to start and what problems are most important to address first. I have laid this book out as a series of guidelines, starting with bringing him home. Guidelines and science are supported by real-world experiences and inspirational anecdotes.
Our goal is to restore health and comfort, and to help him learn how to function as the horse he is expected to be. Every horse, situation, and caretaker capability is unique, but as a veterinarian, I have observed broad commonalities among many rescue situations. I hope you will find information and inspiration in the following chapters.
Aside from universal horse health needs, we will discuss common medical problems. As he recovers physically, you will concurrently be training him. Emergency rescue, horses who are unable to rise, and euthanasia are also covered. It’s important to acknowledge that it is possible that the full health of a rescue horse may never be restored.
The Five Freedoms (ref. 1.3)
1. Freedom from hunger and thirst
by ready access to fresh water and diet to maintain health and vigor
2. Freedom from discomfort
by providing an appropriate environment including shelter and a comfortable resting area
3. Freedom from pain, injury or disease
by prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment
4. Freedom to express normal behavior
by providing sufficient space, proper facilities and company of the animal’s own kind
5. Freedom from fear and distress
by ensuring conditions and treatment which avoid mental suffering
The Unwanted or Neglected Horse
When the “Five Freedoms” (see sidebar) are not met, a horse’s situation needs improvement. These horses may come from any number of places. For example, an elderly person may pass away and her heirs don't want her horses. A rescue group may work with law enforcement and look after horses after they have been confiscated. Social media and internet sites such as Craigslist or Facebook groups have rescue networks, including those for orphan foals. I have treated horses that wandered into somebody’s semi-rural yard. Gathered Mustangs and off-the-track-Thoroughbreds are looking for homes and jobs. Some people buy horses at auction yards that are “known” for allowing kill-pen buyers to bid and buy stock.
The phrase “unwanted horse” means “...horses that are no longer wanted by their current owner because they are old, injured, sick, unmanageable, or fail to meet their owner’s expectations.” (ref 1.4) The horse may or may not have an injury, lameness, or illness, or he could be the wrong color or gender. His problem could be either immediately life-threatening or chronic and manageable. He may also have a behavioral problem that ranges from mild to severe. In the U.S., it is estimated that 100,000-150,000 horses per year are unwanted.
A horse may end up in a bad or neglectful situation through no fault of his own. Through my career, I have noticed that horses in a high-dollar high-level performance barn can have similar bloodlines, capabilities, and temperaments to a horse who ends up in a muddy paddock with minimal care. What makes the difference? Luck. And circumstances that are beyond the horses’ or the humans’ control.
A Cautionary Tale
It was early January, the air was biting, and a week’s worth of snow came up around my boot tops as I traipsed across the yard and knocked on the door. Rose and Dan, an elderly couple, were wearing coats and hats inside the house – it was almost as frigid inside as it was outside. The neighbors had been calling the authorities for weeks and reporting Cookie’s emaciated appearance. In most jurisdictions, a veterinarian must examine an animal before it is confiscated because of neglect, so I had been called to examine the horse in question.
We slowly walked together out to the barn. He explained, “We have to subsist only off of our Social Security checks. I have bad knees and a bad heart, and my company’s retirement fund was lost when the economy crashed.”
“I’m sorry to hear that,” I replied.
Dan continued, “We had a great place in east Texas, always had grass! We couldn’t afford to maintain that property, so we downsized and moved out here to the desert.”
Rose told me, “We used to have three horses, but we were able to sell the others before we moved. Cookie was my favorite, so we kept her.” She went on to tell me that after the move, when they realized they wouldn’t have Dan’s retirement income, they had tried to sell Cookie. She had become thin and nobody wanted to buy her. Rose had also talked to some people at the local horse rescue group, but they didn’t have room for any more horses and were underfunded. She had been told there was a waiting list, although the rescue had never called back. The couple had even tried to give her away. Only one person had come to inquire, and Rose had feared he would sell Cookie to slaughter, so she didn’t let the man take her.
Cookie was in the barn. She was a kind horse, with soft eyes and relaxed ears, but was emaciated. Rose and Cookie looked at each other with love and sadness. In the dusty aisle, there was a single bale of fresh hay, and a single bag of grain that had been purchased in anticipation of my arrival. The mare was eating. When we talked about how to help Cookie, I emphasized how sudden dietary changes could be dangerous to horses who were this thin. Dan told me that although Cookie lost weight each winter, she always picked back up and was fine during warmer months.
A few days later, I received another call from Rose. Cookie was down in the snow, and couldn’t get up. When I arrived, it was obvious her body had shut down. Cookie had experienced a severe metabolic problem called refeeding syndrome. I gave her medications and fluids directly into her vein. We tried to help her up with support and encouragement, but it was a losing battle. We all cried as Cookie took her last breath.
Rose and Dan weren’t able to pay the invoices to the veterinary practice. In a few months, we found out that they had filed bankruptcy and lost their home. Rose and Dan knew Cookie was thin, and cared deeply about her. They couldn’t feed her because they had no money – they couldn’t keep heat on in their home or feed themselves. They had honestly tried to the best of their ability and had lost their beloved friend. For me, this case was a wake-up call about the judgment that we sometimes feel without knowing the entire situation. Please help your neighbors. Please learn more about their struggle before assuming the worst of them. Cookie’s situation happens hundreds or thousands of times over the world.
Many of us have a hard time understanding the root of this problem, since culturally we regard horses as magnificent, sentient beings. They capture our spirits and hearts, so neglecting one is horrifying.
Yet there have been, and probably will always be, people who are unable to provide appropriate food, shelter, or medical care to the animals that depend on them. (fig. 1.3) The well-being of unlucky horses truly suffers. A survey in 2012 determined that half of horse owners in the U.S. had an annual income of less than $50,000. When the economy crashed in the late 2000s, people and horses were left starving and out in the cold.
Around the same time, the federal budget no longer provided funding to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to maintain the three equine slaughter facilities in the U.S. Without the economic support of the horse industry that slaughter provided, many horses were adversely affected by this federal policy change. Problems worsened with the coincident economic recession.
Horse slaughter is a complex issue, but since it has been unavailable in the U.S. for over a decade, it is unlikely to return. I shudder to think of any of my own beloved horses consigned to a fate of slaughter. However, I also recognize that the horse market was suddenly flooded, and with no long-term solution to quell the population, the ultimate fate of many horses was prolonged suffering. At this time, if a horse goes to slaughter, it is in another country. The trailer ride is long. There is no USDA oversight of foreign slaughter facilities to ensure humane handling. Try as we might to prevent this fact, an average of 68,000 horses per year were exported from the U.S to Canada or Mexico for slaughter each year from 2007-2017. This is between 1-2% of the total U.S. horse population, and may be as much as half of the unwanted horse population. Horses that are slaughtered are mainly used for human consumption in Europe or other countries.
Horse Population Changes
Between the 2005 and the 2017 Economic Impact of the Horse Industry on the United States reports, the overall horse population declined by about two million (from 9.2 to 7.2 million horses). Most breed registries in North America reported overall declines in new horse registries from about 2000-2015. For example, the Jockey Club is the second largest registry of horses in North America. The Jockey Club has had fewer and fewer foal registries since 1990 – well before the recent economic recession. In 1990, 44,143 foals were registered. After the recession, in both 2010 and 2011 there was more than a 12% decline. The decline has stabilized in recent years. The lowest number of foals born was in 2018, with less than half of the 1990 registries: 19,500.
The key feature when looking at foaling trends is to acknowledge that horses live a very long time. A horse born in 1990 could still be alive in 2019 at 29 years of age. Caring for horses is a real long-term commitment. Financial circumstances of owners through that period of time could change. Because horses have a twenty to thirty year lifespan, the problem of overpopulation can ricochet for years because unwanted and aging horses already existed before the recession.
While the horse market “corrected” itself and breeders decreased the number of foals they raised during the last decade, many horses are still in need of rescue. Between 2008-2018, The University of Tennessee alone has treated 114 horses for emaciation and neglect, of which 28 died despite aggressive medical therapy.
During the worst part of the decline there were dark days for horses, with reports of people turning their herds out in the forests of the central U.S., or in remote areas of the West. Nobody knows for sure how many horses this happened to, or what became of them.
Large North American Breed Registries
1. American Quarter Horse Association
2. Jockey Club of North America, which maintains records for Thoroughbred horses and races
3. American Paint Horse Association
4. U.S. Trotting Association, which maintains records for Standardbred horses and races
5. Tennessee Walking Horse Breeders and Exhibitors’ Association
6. Arabian Horse Association
The Horse Industry Improves
Ownership transfers of adult horses can serve as an estimate of how many horses exchange hands, but not all registries track this information. Transfers decreased from 2005 to 2015. From 2016 to 2018, small increases have been recorded showing that the horse industry is recovering.
We are now more than a decade beyond the start of the severe recession. Rescue groups are better organized and financial resources have stabilized. The 2018 American Horse Council (AHC) Foundation Economic Impact of the U.S. Horse Industry Report provides statistics on horses and people who work within the industry.
According to the AHC report, the horse population was 7.2 million in 2016. You will find horses in all areas of the country, in cities and in rural areas. You will find working horses, racing horses, show horses, and beloved companions. Working horses are used by mounted police, carriage drivers, ranchers, and backcountry tourists.
The AHC report counted 602 equine rescues or sanctuaries, who handled 24,000 horses. These rescues added 438 jobs and a $42 million value to the U.S economy. Unfortunately, rescues handled only about 20% of unwanted horses.
The 2018 AHC survey documented that just over 1% of U.S. households own horses, and 16% participate in horse activities. Rescue is one activity that attracts horse enthusiasts who don't own horses. There is an untapped network of millions of people that could become rescue donors, volunteers, and adopters.
Some states register and inspect equine rescue groups. Many rescue groups have a working partnership with local law enforcement, which helps both groups serve their purpose more effectively. Rescue groups must stick to specific guidelines during the rehabilitation process. Following science-supported guidelines improves the horse’s chance of recovery, and could help prove in court that a horse was neglected.
Technology in Rescue
The recent internet and social media explosion has positively impacted horse rescue. Dozens of Facebook groups and Instagram accounts focus on rescue horses. Rescue organizations use email lists and scheduling software. Netposse.com focuses on recovering stolen horses. We have our smartphones with us, so we can check on that cute palomino (lot #115) and donate to her plight while we are in line at the grocery store.
Confiscation or Assistance
When evaluating a horse’s situation, consider if he is not cared for because of a short-term or a permanent problem. (fig. 1.4) For example, a family that ordinarily allows their horses to graze on pasture could experience severe drought. A herd that normally accesses low-land winter pasture, could experience a particularly snowy year, preventing access to their source of forage.
For temporary problems, keeping horses in homes they already have is best. Moving them out of the owner’s hands often turns them into unwanted horses and further burdens the system that is managing the horse overpopulation problem.
We can educate and assist people to improve the plight of their stock. Funding can be acquired from state or local government or non-profit assistance. Reach out to help the humans as much as you help horses. We often don’t know the whole story and sometimes people just need a boost.
This is one of several medical cases that inspired me to write this book. I treated a rescue horse Chico for colic. Chico was sleek and fit. His owner, Sheila, fed him high-quality alfalfa hay from a large feed trough as was common in the region. Feeding in the trough allows a horse to eat at ground-level, as his body is designed to do, but prevents him from ingesting dirt. Chico was up to date on regular veterinary care, vaccines, and parasite control. They went on rides several times a week. Sheila loved Chico.
As part of the examination for colic, I palpated him per rectum to identify abnormalities. I could feel a hard impaction in his large colon – severe, high constipation. Worse yet, his colon was displaced from its normal location in the abdomen. The impaction felt like it had a gritty texture. There was an additional unusual finding: small black gravel and coarse sand in his feces. I was pulling out handfuls of sand rather than handfuls of normal fecal balls of digested forage. At Sheila’s home, Chico lived in a high desert paddock of fine red dirt. He had been living there for the last seven years. Sheila and I were confused. Where had the black sand come from?
Sheila showed me photographs of where Chico had lived with his previous owner, and we realized that he had lived on black and gray sand. In the photograph, he was dirty and skinny. Some of the soil he had eaten while starving and neglected remained in his gut for seven years. As part of his episode of colic, his colon became displaced and the sand had been shifted around. There was no other plausible explanation.
Chico, sadly, continued to be in pain. His colic worsened, despite hospitalization, intravenous fluids, and other treatments to combat the sand problem and displaced colon. Sheila could not afford the cost of surgery, and Chico was not getting better. Finally, we made the sad, difficult decision to euthanize him.
Sheila's grief was bittersweet: “I guess that is the tough part of rescue. You never know what is going to happen. I’m going to miss Chico very much. We loved each other! I’m grateful I could make his years with me happy and carefree.”
How to Take Proper Care of Your Rescued Horse
This book is going to help you take care of your horse. I have used organized scientific data as well personal veterinary experience to compile the information it contains. It starts with the first day when your horse arrives at his new home with you, then progresses to addresses your horse’s consecutive needs, both medically and mentally.
This is no easy task. The daunting facts are that we cannot save every single horse in need. Money is a huge factor in restoring health. We may have to choose between the possibility of helping a horse with a very expensive problem and helping four or five other horses with less severe problems. It may take six months to a year to restore a starved and neglected horse to maximal health. There may be lingering health or behavioral consequences that last his lifetime.
Morally, we must help alleviate suffering. Horse people are strong people, and this is even more true for rescue. By working together to learn what each horse needs, we can better help horses who depend on us for their fate.
Table of ContentsChapter One Where They Come From: Horses in Need
[sidebar] The Five Freedoms
The Unwanted or Neglected Horse
[sidebar] A Cautionary Tale
Horse Population Changes
[sidebar] Large North American Breed Registries
The Horse Industry Improves
Technology in Rescue
Confiscation or Assistance
[sidebar] Long-Term Consequences
How to Take Proper Care of Your Rescued Horse
Chapter Two Bringing Them Home: Traveling and Intake of Your Rescue Horse
Get Ready to Roll
Trailer Inspection and Safety
[sidebar] Pre-Drive Checklist, Professional Trailer Inspection
Loading Your Horse
Know Your Horses
[sidebar] Watch Your Step
Travel Stress of Horses
Preventing Respiratory Illness While Traveling
Reducing Stress – Rest Your Horses
Other Ways to Reduce Stress
Halter and Tie Horses Properly
Dress Horses Properly
Trailer Regulations for Mustangs
Trailer Regulations for Slaughter
[sidebar] Never Look a Gift Horse in the Mouth
Tags and Collars
Chapter Three Rest and Digest: Nutrition, Dentistry, and Colic
Body Condition Scoring
[chart] Original Henneke Body Condition Score Table
Safely Feeding the Starved Horse
Days One Through Three
Day Four to Two Weeks
Two Weeks to Two Months
[sidebar] Skinny Surprise
[chart] Factors Affecting Non-Structural Carbohydrates (NSC)
Nutrient Content of Forage
Use of Probiotics
Long-term Weight Changes
[chart] Example Rations
Monitor His Weight
Other Considerations for Re-Feeding Rescue Horses
Psychological Effects of Starvation
Extra Winter Care for the Emaciated Horse
Other Reasons for Weight Loss
Signs of Colic
[sidebar] List of Colic Signs
Types of Colic
Avoid Sudden Changes in Feed
Veterinary Evaluation and Treatment of Colic
Further Treatment & Management of Colic
[sidebar] Hobby Horse Rescuer
Chapter Four Germs and Worms: Vaccination and Parasite Management
Parasite Management and Deworming
Toxicity and Environmental Concerns
Fecal Egg Count
[sidebar] Modified McMaster’s Fecal Evaluation
Special Cases and Considerations
Deworming Needy Horses
Parasite Management Summary
Ectoparasites and Skin Conditions
Other Skin Conditions
Mosquito-borne Viruses that Affect the Nervous System.
Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan Encephalitis
West Nile Virus
Respiratory Disease in Needy Equines
Diagnosing Respiratory Illness
Treating Respiratory Illness
[chart] Table of Vaccines
Chapter Five Keeping Them Moving and Sound: Hoof Care, Lameness, and Wounds
[sidebar] Pain and Attitude
Routine Hoof Care
Factors Affecting Hoof Structure and Growth
How Nutrition Affects Hoof Growth
How Genetics Affect Hoof Growth
[sidebar] Long Ears
How Environment Affects Hooves
Recognizing Lameness in Rescue Horses
Evaluating the Feet of a Rescue Horse
[sidebar] Bobbing Bobby
When to Shoe
If Wear Exceeds Growth, Shoes are Necessary
If the Horse Experiences Foot Pain, Shoes are Necessary
Shoeing Horses with Abnormalities
Causes of Lameness
Injuries That Damage the Hoof
Chronic Generalized Arthritis
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
Disease Modifying Osteoarthritis Drugs
[chart] Arthritis Treatment Table
Extensive or Deep Wounds
Chapter Six Birth Control: Managing Mares and Castrating Colts
Castration of Males
When to Safely Castrate Males
What to do About Swelling
What to do About Bleeding
What to do About Infection
[sidebar] Long Ears: Castration of Other Equines
Why Cryptorchidism Happens
Why Cryptorchids Often Need Help
The Proud-Cut Myth
[sidebar] The Proud-Cut Lottery
Pregnancy Evaluation in Mares and Fillies
[chart] Cost of Pregnancy Diagnosis
[sidebar] Two for One
Pregnant Mare Nutrition
Caloric Needs Increase
Vaccines for Pregnant Mares
Chapter Seven Little Lives: Rescuing Foals
The Birthing Process
[start sidebar] Long Ears
Predicting Foaling Time
[sidebar] Tragic Accident
Timing: Foaling Happens Quickly
Foal Positioning Problems
Normal After-Birth Sequence
Passage of Meconium
[sidebar] Normal Vital Parameters for Foals
[within sidebar] Temperature, Heart, Respiration
Examination of the Limbs
Evaluation of Passive Transfer of Immunity
[sidebar] Other Abnormalities that Warrant Veterinary Care
[sidebar] Long Ears
Normal Foal Behavior
The Orphan Foal
Feeding Orphan Foals
Alternatives to Colostrum – Birth to 24 Hours
Nutrition From Two Days to Two Weeks.
[sidebar] Nurse Mare Non-Match
Frequency of Feeding
Feeding Containers & Methods
Volume Your Foal Will Eat
Feeding – Two Weeks to Two Months
[chart] Timeline for Foals
[sidebar] Too Close for Comfort
When to Begin
Putting on the Halter
Learning to Lead
Following the Mare
Pressure and Release
Picking up Feet
Chapter Eight Unable to Rise: The Down Horse
The Down Horse
Normal Sleeping Patterns
Reasons For a Horse to be Down
[sidebar] Reasons Why a Horse is Down
Identifying Underlying Problems
Treating Underlying Problems
How to Get The Down Horse Up
Identify and Remove Obstacles
Rolling a Horse
Sliding to Reposition
Get Him Up (Prepare and Assist)
Long-Term Treatment of Underlying Problems
Long-Term Down Horse
Bed Sores and Skin Injuries
Use of Slings
Chapter Nine Urgent Rescue: Working in Disasters
Learn About Your Locale
Prepare your Plan
Prepare for Transport
Identify Your Horse
[sidebar] Make Your Go Bucket
[sidebar] Sarah’s Story
Guidelines for Working in Natural Disasters and Accidents
Technical Large Animal Emergency Rescue
[sidebar] Potential Response Team Members
First Aid for Horses
[sidebar] Normal Vital Parameters for Horses
Wounds on the Body
Specific Disasters and their Equine Health Consequences
Falling through ice or into a swimming pool
Blizzards and Snow
Chapter Ten A Good Goodbye: Euthanasia
Making the Decision
Other Reasons for Euthanasia
Most Common Procedure
[sidebar] Saying Goodbye to Buddy
Take Home Message
Part Two – Training
[sidebar] Training Appropriate by BCS
Chapter Eleven How Horses Sense and Respond: Sensory Physiology, Training Concepts, and Thought Processes (Fear)
Field of View
[sidebar] Blind Trust
[sidebar] White-associated Deafness
Sense of Smell
Understanding his Senses
[sidebar] Clicker & Positive Reinforcement Training
Intrinsic Reward and Bribery
Approach and Retreat
[sidebar] Click-it or Ticket
The Fearful Horse & Rescue Training
The Fear Response
Recognizing Fear – What Your Horse is Telling You
[sidebar] Signs of Apprehension or Fear
[sidebar] Long Ears
Physiology of Fear
[sidebar] A Violation of Trust
Recognizing Relaxation – What Your Horse is Telling You
[sidebar] Signs of Relaxation and Comfort
Helping Others Improve Their Training Skills
Chapter Twelve Restoring Trust: Developing a Relationship
[Sidebar] Chapter Twelve Checklist.
Develop a Foundation of Trust
Routine and Respect
Behavior and Weakness
Consistency and Fairness
Novelty and Anxiety
Fear of Whips
[start sidebar] Some Stuff Your Steed May Be Afraid Of
Medically Addressing Fear
[start sidebar] The Twitch
[sidebar] The Portly Paso
Handling Feet and Legs with Trust
Picking up The Feet of a Trained Adult
[start sidebar] Shivers
Training for Hoof Care
Lift a Front Foot
Training for Hind Legs
Keep it Up
Preparing for the Farrier
Setting his Foot Down
Go Slow to Obtain Consistent Results
Using a Rope
Chapter Thirteen Fearless: Halter Training Adult Horses
[Sidebar] Chapter Thirteen Checklist
The Flight Zone
Reduce Flight Zone
Haltering and Halter Types
Applying the Halter
The Sick Horse
Chapter Fourteen Patient Training: Skills for Medical Care
[Sidebar] Chapter Fourteen Checklist
Advanced Leading Skills – Tight Spaces and New Situations
Thinking About His Options
[sidebar] Rushed – A Leading Story
Advanced Leading Skills
Training Horses that Don't Know How to Load
Eliminate the Fear Factor
Teach Him Unloading First
Entering the Hospital Environment
Entering and Being Restrained in Stocks
Companionship for Reassurance
Retraining Needle-Shy Horses
Desensitize Your Horse to Injections – Long-Term Training
Preparation for Intranasal Treatments
Chapter Fifteen Getting Going: Groundwork
[Sidebar] Chapter Fifteen Checklist
Health Status of the Horse
Considerations of the Mental Status of the Horse
Halting When Longing
[sidebar] Not Trotting
[sidebar] Rowdy Ranger: A Need for Training
Notes About Bucking
Chapter Sixteen Final Steps: Riding
[Sidebar] Chapter Sixteen Checklist
[sidebar] Upward Fixation of the Patella
To Bridle or Not to Bridle
Steps of Desensitization for Mounting
[sidebar] The Final Phase