This book investigates the Communist political phenomenon, including the origins and development of Communism as well as the revolutions that led to the rise of the major Communist states around the world.
Written for high school students, undergraduates, and general readers, this book surveys the global rise of Communism. It begins with a timeline and narrative overview, which are followed by reference entries, primary source documents, and original argumentative essays on enduring issues related to Communism.
The book first covers the earliest phases of the "Utopian Socialist" movement and the beginnings of Marxist theory. It then discusses the Russian Revolution of 1917; the creation of the Soviet Union; the regime of terror instituted by Stalin; the expansion of Communism during the years of the Cold War, particularly in Asia; and the Cuban Revolution and the regime of Fidel Castro. It also discusses the progression toward revolution among the European Satellite countries as it included the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, the Czech revolution of 1968, and the multiple revolutions from 1989–1991 that saw the collapse of the Soviet system and the Cold War.
• Includes a timeline to help students identify key events related to the rise of Communism and their relation to one another
• Examines the rise of Communism around the world, its causes, and its significance in a narrative overview
• Provides fundamental information about key topics through alphabetically arranged reference entries
• Presents primary source historical documents to give students first-hand accounts of the development of Communist thought and its legacy
• Offers original argumentative essays to help students critically consider major issues and debates related to Communism
About the Author
Patrick G. Zander is associate professor of history at Georgia Gwinnett College, where he teaches British and European History. His previous books include ABC-CLIO's The Rise of Fascism: History, Documents, and Key Questions.
Table of Contents
Alphabetical List of Entries vii
Topical List of Entries ix
How to Use This Book xi
Historical Overview xxiii
The Rise of Communism: A to Z 1
Primary Documents 143
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto (February 1848) 143
Vladimir Lenin, Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1917) 147
Vladimir Lenin, The "April Theses" (April 1917) 150
The Call for a Popular Front against Fascism: "Resolution of the Seventh World Congress of the Communist International" (August 1935) 153
Joseph Stalin's Response to Churchill's iron Curtain Speech (March 14, 1946) 155
Mao Zedong Calls for a People's Democratic Dictatorship (June 1949) 157
Kim Il-Sung, Address to the Korean People on the Occasion of the Liberation of Pyong Yang (December 1950) 160
Manifesto of the South Vietnam National Liberation Front (1961) 161
Communication from Nikita Khrushchev to President John F. Kennedy during the Cuban Missile Crisis (October 28, 1962) 164
The Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, "The Sixteen Points of the Cultural Revolution" (August 8, 1966) 167
Key Questions 171
Question 1 Was Communism an Inherently Flawed Theoretical Conception That Would Inevitably Lead to Repressive, Totalitarian States, or Was It a Promising Theory Twisted by Particular Individuals and Institutions Making Communist Regimes Particularly Repressive and Violent? 171
Question 2 Did Communism Provide a Particularly Strong System for the Rapid Advancement of Science and Technology, or Was Such Development Impeded by the Communist System and Inevitably Doomed to Lag Behind the Democratic/Capitalist States? 181
Question 3 Were Cold War Fears about the Communists' Intentions and Means for the Continual Spread of Communism and Eventual World Domination Justified on the Part of the Western Democracies? 192
Selected Annotated Bibliography 203
About the Author and Contributors 217