## Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables

Acknowledgments

Preface

Chapter One: Basic Concepts

Part I: Variables

Level of Measurement

Dichotomous Variables

Operationalized Variables

Independent (IV) and Dependent (DV) Variables

Causality

Units of Analysis: Individual and Place-level Data

Part II: Thinking about Procedures

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

Difference

Observing and Estimating

Conclusion

Key terms

Chapter Two: Describing Distributions

Part I: Frequency Distributions

Part II: Summary Measures

Measures of Central Tendency (Mean, Median, Mode)

Measures of Dispersion (or Variability)

Categoric Variables: Index of Diversity and Index of Qualitative Variation

Part III: Graphing and Visual Displays of Distributions

Part IV: Standardized Scores or Z-scores

The Mathematical Imagination: The Magic of Z-scores

Math Interlude: Chebycheff's Inequality

Conclusion

Key Terms

Chapter Three: Statistical Inference

Part I: Thinking about Statistical Inference

Statistical Inference: What Are We Trying To Do?

Variability

The Mathematical Imagination: A World Without Variability

The Normal Curve

The Mathematical Imagination: Mild and Wild Randomness

Sampling Distributions and the Normal Curve

Sampling Error: Variability of the Sampling Distribution

The Central Limit Theorem

Math Thoughts

Underlying Distributions and Sampling Distributions

The Sampling Distribution of a Proportion

Part II: Doing Statistical Inference

The Logic of Statistical Inference

Confidence Intervals

Hypothesis Testing (The Null Hypothesis and T-tests)

Conclusion

Key Terms

Chapter Four: Relationships Among Variables

Part I: An Overview - Thinking About Variable Relationships

Four Types of Data Analysis Techniques

Beyond Bivariate Analysis: Adding Variables and Staying Alert

Part II: Data Analysis Techniques

Section One: Regression Analysis

Math Interlude: The Natural Log Transformation

Section Two: Crosstabs

Section Three: ANOVA

Section Four: Logistic Regression

Conclusion

Key Terms

Conclusion

How To?

Choosing a Data Analysis Technique

Regression Analysis

Pearson's Correlation Coefficient

The Bivariate Regression Equation

Coefficient of Determination (aka "R-squared")

Crosstabs and Related Procedures

Computing Chi-Square

Joint and Marginal Distributions

More about Running Percentages

Measures of Association

ANOVA and the F-test

T-tests

One-Sample T-test

Independent Samples T-test

Exercises

Questions

Answers

Math Refresher

Tips for Studying Math

Estimating

From Common Sense to Formula

The Number Line

Greater and Lesser

Absolute Value

Fractions and Other Proportions

Decimal Fractions

Percent

Comparing Fractions

Computing Percent Change and Percentage Point Change

Operations

Addition

Multiplication

Subtraction

Division

Word or Story Problems

Squaring, Higher Powers, and Square Roots

Squaring

Higher Powers

Square Roots

Scientific Notation

Manipulating Formulas

The Coordinate Plane, Ordered Pairs, and Functions

Appendix

Tables of Probability Distributions

Table 26: Critical Values for the Z-distribution

Table 27: Critical Values for the T-distribution

Table 28: Critical Values for the Chi-Square Distribution

Table 29: Critical Values for the F-distribution

Bibliography, Reading Suggestions, and Works Cited

Index