Les Maîtres de l'Affiche (The Masters of the Poster) is one of the most prestigious and influential art publications in history. Its 256 color plates have preserved for each succeeding generation a wide- ranging selection of outstanding posters from the turn of the century, when the popular art form had reached its first peak. This Dover edition is the first complete republication of the legendary Maîtres set to devote a full large page to each plate.
Les Maîtres de l'Affiche was issued as separate numbered sheets measuring 11 1/4 x 15 1/2 inches. Every month for 60 months, from December 1895 through November 1900, subscribers received a wrapper containing four consecutively numbered poster reproductions. On 16 occasions, the monthly wrapper also contained a bonus plate, not a poster reproduction but a specially created art lithograph. Jules Chéret, father of the modern poster, emerged with the lion's share of the plates, 60 of the 240 numbered poster reproductions and 7 of the 16 unnumbered bonus plates. Of the 97 artists represented in Les Maîtres de l'Affiche, some were preeminent painters and printmakers at various stages of their careers: Toulouse-Lautrec, Denis, Bonnard, Vallotton, Puvis de Chavannes. Others were famous illustrators and cartoonists of the period, still well known to art collectors and bibliophiles: Forain, Caran d'Ache, Ibels, Willete, Boutet de Monvel, Léandre. But there were also all those whose names say "poster," the conquering pioneers of the new medium: Chéret himself, Mucha, Steinlen, the Beggarstaffs, Grasset, Penfield, Parrish, Bradley, and Hardy.
This edition reproduces the plates in their original numerical sequence, one to a page, retaining the standardized tan border introduced by the editors of Les Maîtres. The bonus plates, originally unnumbered and issued at various times, have been given the letters A through P and have been placed at the end of the volume. The List of Plates indicates the exact months in which Maîtres subscribersreceived these bonus plates. In order to keep the plate pages uncluttered, the captions on those pages have been limited to plate number (or letter) and the artist's name. The List of Plates also furnishes essential data on the original full-sized posters: their dimensions, the year in which they were first published, city of publication, and specific print shop responsible. A special Dover feature, which is almost certainly a first ever, is a full literal translation of the text of all posters printed in a language other than English. These are all new direct translations from French, German, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, Danish, Czech, and Hungarian.
About the Author
Stanley Appelbaum served for decades as Dover's Editor in Chief until his retirement in 1996.
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The Complete "Masters of the Poster"
All 256 Color Plates from "Les Maîtres de I'Affiche"
By STANLEY APPELBAUM
Dover Publications, Inc.Copyright © 1990 Dover Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Alphabetical List of Artists
F HUGO D'ALÉSI (French, born in Romania; 1849–1906): Plates 66, 171. Noted for posters, especially those with travel subjects commissioned by railroad lines LOUIS ANQUETIN (French; 1861–1932): Plate 150. Pupil of Manet; independent, influenced by Degas and van Gogh; painted portraits, figures, scenes, designed tapestry, cartoons; produced a few lithographs.
FERDINAND BAC (original surname Bach, German, naturalized French; 1859–1952); Plate 19. Frequent contributor to Parisian humor magazines; several posters for the singer and diseuse Yvette Guilbert; writer of varied books illustrated by himself.
E. BARCET: Plate 203. Possibly Emmanuel Bercet, a French draftsman and etcher who exhibited in Paris early in the twentieth century
ÁRPAD BASCH (Hungarian; 19th century): Plate 208. After art study in Budapest, Munich and Paris, he contributed many drawings to illustrated magazines.
THE BEGGARSTAFFS: Plate 16, 63, 107, 168, 184, 232. Under this double pseudonym, Nicholson and Pryde created the modern woodcut poster, with clear outlines and large expanses of flat color
SIR WILLIAM NICHOLSON (English, 1872–1949), renewer of the English woodcut tradition; painter, especially of portraits, costume designer
JAMES PRYDE (Scottish, 1866–1941); painter and wood engraver EMILE BERCHMANS (Belgian; born 1867): Plate 108. Painter, pastelist, etcher, lithographer ; did drawings for books and magazines and various strong posters.
PAUL BERTHON (French, active in Paris around 1900): Plates 175, 227, bonus plate N Illustrator and poster artist influenced by style of Grasset.
G. BOANO (Italian): Plate 192.
PIERRE BONNARD (French; 1867–1947): Plate 38. Major painter and graphic artist; his posters date from his early, decorative period; graphic style influenced by Toulouse-Lautrec, did many book illustrations; in painting, began as one of the "Nabis," later gave a new interpretation to Impressionism, employing an unusual range of bold colors
FIRMIN BOUISSET (French, 1859–1925): Plate 47. Painter and printmaker who exhibited from 1880 on; did many posters and a number of illustrated books
MAURICE BOUTET DE MONVEL (French, 1851–1913): Plates 26, 106. Painter (including religious and Oriental scenes), watercolorist, illustrator of many books, especially juveniles.
WILL BRADLEY (American; 1868–1962): Plates 52, 136, 162, 172. "Dean of American designers and art editors"; prolific designer of covers, posters, book illustrations influenced by Beardsley, founder of Wayside Press; did Chap-Books for American Type Founders; art director of Collier's, Good Housekeeping, etc; writer; type designer; stage and movie designer
CARAN D'ACHE (French, 1858 or 1859–1909): Plate 70. Pseudonym of Emmanuel Poiré, renowned caricaturist and illustrator, influenced by Busch and Oberländer, born in Moscow, used Russian word for pencil (karandásh) as nom de plume; excelled in military subjects; contributor to Le Figaro, La Caricature, etc; creator of puppets and cabaret puppet shows.
WILLIAM CARQUEVILLE (American; born 1871): Plates 44, 132 Chiefly known for his posters for Lippincott's.
HENDRICK CASSIERS (Belgian; 1858–1944): Plate 228 Painter and printmaker; spent much time in Holland; specialized in landscape watercolors; illustrated books
F-A. CAZALS (French; 1865–1941): Plate 15 Magazine and book illustrator ; wrote poems and songs, famous chiefly for his lithographic portraits of his friend Verlaine.
ALEXANDRE CHARPENTIER (French; 1856–1909): Plate 13 Sculptor and medalist who exhibited from 1874 on and won a grand prize at the Paris World's Fair of 1900.
JULES CHÉRET (French; 1836—1932): Plates 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29, 33, 37, 41, 45, 49, 53, 57, 61, 65, 69, 73, 77, 81, 85, 89, 93, 97, 101, 105, 109, 113, 117, 121, 125, 129, 133, 137, 141, 145, 149, 153, 157, 161, 165, 169, 173, 177, 181, 185, 189, 193, 197, 201, 205, 209, 213, 217, 221, 225, 229, 233, 237, bonus plates A, B, C, E, I, M, P Leading lithographer; set up his own shop, specializing in posters, in 1866 (in 1881 this shop became part of the Imprimerie Chaix, publishers of Les Maîtres de l'Affiche); after selling shop, continued doing commercial graphics, but also paintings, tapestry cartoons, etc.; combining rococo grace and modern Parisian elegance, created a true poster style (rather than imitation of oil paintings); first major poster artist to draw directly on lithographic stone.
CRAFTY (real name Victor Geruzez; French, ca. 1840—1906): Bonus plate L. Draftsman and writer; many albums of humorous drawings; sketches for magazines; specialized in horses and coaches ADOLPHE CRESPIN (Belgian; born 1859): Plates 28, 91. Art Nouveau painter; decorated walls of Belgian churches and public buildings, teacher at Belgian Royal Academy; important poster artist from 1887 on.
MAURICE DENIS (French; 1870—1943): Plate 140. Major painter, muralist, designer, printmaker, art theorist; influential in modernistic currents at turn of century; with Gauguin at Pont-Aven; in Symbolist and "Nabi" movements; strong religious element in his art.
AUGUSTE DONNAY (Belgian; 1862—1921): Plate 59. Painter, printmaker, designer, draftsman; studied in Paris; Symbolist, magazine artist, book illustrator, nationalistic landscapist with a mystical tinge.
ARTHUR W(ESLEY) DOW (American; died 1922): Plate 36. Painter, printmaker, art teacher, studied in Boston and Paris; curator of Japanese art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
EDOUARD DUYCK (Belgian; 1856—1897): Plate 28. Painter HYLAND ELLIS (English): Plate 96.
HENRI EVENEPOEL (Belgian; 1872—1899): Plate 116. Pupil of Gustave Moreau in Paris; painter and graphic artist with strong sense of color; specialized in depiction of children.
GEORGES FAY (French): Plates 183, 231.
FERNEL (aka F Cerckel; Belgian): Plates 154, 207. Possibly same as painter Fernand Fernel who exhibited in 1920s and specialized in circus and theatrical subjects.
GEORGES DE FEURE (French; 1868–1928): Plates 10, 130, 146, 199, bonus plate H Pupil of Chéret; did many posters; painter, lithographer, engraver, illustrator; designer of theater decorations, porcelains, furniture and furnishings (in the style of van de Velde).
OTTO FISCHER (German; 1870–1947): Plates 68, 127. Painter, etcher, lithographer, designer of applied art; around 1895, helped to create the modern German artistic poster, did chiefly graphics up to 1906, later did various oils
PAUL (POVL) FISCHER (Danish, born 1860): Plate 84 Painter and sculptor, specializing in portraits and street scenes.
JEAN-LOUIS FORAIN (French; 1852–1931): Plates 51, 186. Painter, printmaker, draftsman; contributed stinging cartoons to numerous fin-de-siècle publications; cofounder with Caran d'Ache of Psst, a violently anti-Dreyfus magazine
GUSTAVE FRAIPONT (Belgian, naturalized French; born 1849): Plate 218. Painter and printmaker, did many posters, associated with own printshop.
LEO GAUSSON (French; 1860-1944): Plate 71. Painter, engraver, sculptor; member of late- and post-Impressionist circles; abandoned art and entered colonial service in Africa.
HENRI GERBAULT (French; 1863—1930): Plate 83. Did humorous illustrations for magazines and books, also watercolorist.
ALICE R(USSEL) GLENNY (American; born 1858): Plate 60. Painter and sculptor; studied with William Merritt Chase in New York, and in Paris; did murals in Buffalo.
AUGUSTE GORGUET (French; 1862–1927): Plate 214. Genre painter FERNAND GOTTLOB (French, born 1873): Plates 219, 239. Lithographer, illustrator, portrait painter
EUGENE GRASSET (Swiss, naturalized French; 1841–1917): Plates 18, 42, 50, 98, 126, 158, 174. Sculptor, illustrator (influenced by Dore), designer of applied art (influenced by Viollet-le-Duc), poster artist, painter, architect; stained-glass style in evidence in the poster for his own show (Plate 98).
MAURICE GREIFFENHAGEN (English; 1862–1921): Plate 24 Figure and portrait painter influenced by Renaissance art and Pre-Raphaelites; did much illustration from 1887 on (magazines, novels by Rider Haggard); the Pall Mall Budget poster was epoch-making.
JULES-ALEXANDRE GRÜN (French; 1868–1934): Plates 103, 159, 223. Painter, pastelist, magazine illustrator, cabaret decorator, poster style influenced by Vallotton; bold use of black-and-white or two-color work (red as a second color)
ALBERT GUILLAUME (French; 1873–1942): Plates 30, 163. Humorous illustrations for magazines and books; paintings (studied with Gérôme), posters influenced by Chéret, facile and "modern."
V GUILLET (French): Plate 187. Possibly the pastelist Valentine Guillet, born 1876.
DUDLEY HARDY (English, 1866–1922) Plates 4, 48, 92, 148, 216. Painter (several works of social import), magazine illustrator, designer of posters and magazine advertisements
FRANK HAZENPLUG (American; born 1873 Plate 87 Chicago illustrator (Chap-Book) and poster artist.
ADOLF HOHENSTEIN (German; born 1854): Plates 160, 180. Born in St. Petersburg, worked in Italy and Germany; painted, did posters for Ricordi in Milan (including the one for Puccini's La Bobème).
FRED HYLAND (English): Plate 120. Illustrator active in London in 1890s; contributed to The Yellow Book.
VOYTECH HYNAIS (Czech/Austrian; 1854–1925); Plate 56. Historical painter; studied in Vienna (with Anselm Feuerbach) and in Paris, where he chiefly resided.
HENRI-GABRIEL IBELS (French, 1867–1936) Plates 6, 78, 102, 138, bonus plate G. Painter, graphic artist, book illustrator, poster artist; did political cartoons concerning the Dreyfus affair; friend of Toulouse-Lautrec, who began lithography at Ibels' insistence RUDOLPH KOLLER (Swiss): Plate 188.
CHARLES LEANDRE (French; 1862–1930): Plate 206, bonus plate O. Painter, printmaker, cartoonist, worked for many humor magazines ; especially connected with the fin-de-siècle Montmartre group; also known for pastel portraits.
LUCIEN LEFÈVRE (aka Lefebvre; French): Plates 11, 55, 90, 135. Portrait painter, exhibited in 1870s
PRIVAT LIVEMONT (aka Privat-Livemont; Belgian, born 1852 or 1861): Plates 88, 104, 212. Decorative painter and poster artist; in Paris in 1880s, then worked and taught at Schaerbeek (see Plate 212).
V LORANT-HEILBRONN (French): Plate 187
CHARLES LUCAS (French): Plates 155, 210, 234
MAXIMILIEN LUCE (French; 1858–1941): Plate 139. Painter, printmaker, draftsman; studied with Carolus Duran; advised by Pissarro; co-founder of Neo-Impressionism along with Signac; specialized in landscape and figures of working people; drew for satirical magazines
GIOVANNI MATALONI (Italian): Plate 72.
LUCIEN MÉTIVET (French; 1863—1930): Plate 22 Painter, cartoonist, poster artist, worked for most of the Parisian illustrated magazines.
GEORGES MEUNIER (French, born 1869): Plates 7, 31, 62, 147, 167.
HENRI MEUNIER (Belgian: 1873–1922): Plates 40, 156, 196. Painter, etcher, lithographer; nephew of the great sculptor Constantin Meunier
MISTI: Plates 86, 215 Probably the French lithographer Ferdinand Misti-Mifliez, who exhibited early in the 20th century
ETIENNE MOREAU-NÉLATON (French; 1859–1927): Plates 58, 118, 162, 178, 198. Painter specializing in landscape, printmaker, ceramicist; major art collector and critic, attuned to Impressionism
ALBERT GEORGE MORROW (English; 1863–1927) Plate 79. Painter, illustrator, poster artist
ALPHONSE (ALFONS) MARIA MUCHA (Czech; 1860–1939): Plates 27, 94, 114, 144, 166, 182, 202 One of the main exponents of Art Nouveau (chief work done in France), painter; graphic artist, designer of stained-glass windows, furniture, carpets, stage sets; important book illustrator and calendar artist, major figure in poster history, his first Bernhardt poster (Plate 27) winning him lasting fame.
GASTON NOURY (French, born 1866) Plate 39. Painter, book illustrator, poster artist.
VÁCLAV OLIVA (Czech): Plates 100, 176 (No. 176 was carried as "anonymous Czech" in the original edition of Les Maîtres de l'Af fiche.)
MANUEL ORAZI (French) Plate 214 Illustrator of numerous literary works between 1898 and 1934
PAL (real name Jean de Paleologu; Romanian, born 1855): Plate 35. Painter and draftsman; studied in Paris and London
MAXFIELD PARRISH (American; 1870–1966): Plate 123. Pupil of Howard Pyle; book and magazine illustrator; painter of figures and landscapes.
EDWARD PENFIELD (American; 1866–1925): Plates 20, 115 Painter, illustrator, lithographer; art director of Harpers, Harper's Weekly and Harper's Bazaar from 1891 to 1901; has been called the originator of the poster in America; designed all Harper's posters from 1893 to 1899.
RENÉ PÉAN (French): Plates 191, 211. Painter and pastelist, specializing in Spanish subjects.
JULIUS PRICE (English; died 1924): Plate 3. Painter; exhibited in London (from 1884 on) and Paris
PIERRE PUVIS DE CHAVANNES (French; 1824—1898); Plate 54 (adaptation of a mural). Eminent easel painter and muralist inspired by Greco-Roman traditions; studied in Italy and France; famous mural for the Boston Public Library (among scores of others); influenced Symbolists, "Nabis" and Degas.
ARMAND RASSENFOSSE (Belgian; 1862–1934): Plates 12, 224. Etcher, painter, book illustrator, poster artist, bookplate designer; started as businessman, became artist at about thirty with the encouragement and instruction of Félicien Rops; great experimenter in graphic media, inventor of a color engraving technique
MAURICE RÉALIER-DUMAS (French; 1860–1928); Plates 23, 111, 226 Genre painter and draftsman; studied with Gérôme; frequent exhibitions and awards.
ETHEL REED (American; born 1876): Plates 99, 128 Painter and illustrator.
FRITZ REHM (German; born 1871 Plate 124 Illustrator, designed posters and bookplates.
REISNER (Czech?): Plate 236
LOUIS RHEAD (American, born in England; 1857–1926): Plates 8, 200, 220. Painter; art manager for D Appleton & Co. from 1883; illustrated children's classics; wrote books on fishing
ALEJANDRO DE RIQUER (Spanish; born 1856): Plates 64, 204. Painter, illustrator, writer
MANUEL ROBBE (French; born 1872): Plate 143 Draftsman, etcher; specialized in Parisian scenes
GEORGES ROCHEGROSSE (French; 1859–1938): Plate 230. Painter, illustrator, printmaker; worked for illustrated magazines; world-famous in the 1880–1900 period.
ROEDEL (French; 1859–1900): Plates 75, 179, 195, 235. Cartoonist and printmaker; friend of Willette; drew for the press.
JOSEF SATTLER (German, 1867–1931): Plate 67 Prolific illustrator and etcher; did many drawings and watercolors; worked for magazine Pan from 1895 to 1897
CARLOS SCHWABE (German, naturalized Swiss; 1866–1926): Plate 74. Painter, printmaker, wallpaper designer, illustrator
THÉOPHILE-ALEXANDRE STEINLEN (Swiss, naturalized French; 1859–1923): Plates 34, 46, 95, 134, 170, 190, bonus plates F J. In Paris from 1882; great chronicler of Montmartre life; etcher, painter, lithographer; contributed to many magazines; did book illustrations; decorated café walls.
LÉOPOLD STEVENS (French; 1866–1935): Plate 151. Painter of landscapes, portraits and genre scenes.
M. LOUISE STOWELL (American; still active around 1930) Plate 76. Born and worked in Rochester, N.Y.; pupil of Arthur W Dow; specialized in watercolors.
H. THOMAS (French): Plate 222.
HENRI DE TOULOUSE-LAUTREC (French; 1864–1901): Plates 2, 82, 110, 122, 238. Indefatigable sketcher of Parisian night life and lowlife; influenced by Degas and Japanese art; painter and (from about 1893, prodded by Ibels) lithographer; exerted widespread influence (especially on the young Picasso); his world-famous posters, menus and invitations were printed in very small quantities, and originals have long been exceedingly rare.
FERNAND TOUSSAINT (Belgian ; 1873–1955): Plate 80. Genre painter
FÉLlX VALLOTTON (French-Swiss; 1865–1925): Plate 119 Painter and graphic artist, aiming at strength and clarity of form; has been called "the Swiss Ingres", in Paris from 1882; book and magazine illustrator; one of the renewers of the art of the woodcut
VAN CASPEL (Dutch): Plate 240.
ADOLPH WILLETTE (French; 1857–1926) Plates 14, 43, 142, 194, bonus plates D, K Painter, draftsman, printmaker, writer; contributor to humor and satire magazines; many posters, book illustrations.
RUDOLF WITZEL (German; born 1867): Plate 164. Painter and poster artist active in Munich from 1890 on; contributed to the famous illustrated magazine Jugend.
CHARLES H(ERBERT) WOODBURY (American; 1864–1940): Plates 32, 112. Painter, etcher; studied in Paris; works acquired by many American museums
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Table of Contents
List of Plates,
Alphabetical List of Artists,