THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO (The Bestselling World Revolution Manual) by KARL MARX & FRIEDRICH ENGELS Special NOOK Edition The Communist Manifesto NOOKbook Anarchist Revolution Books Radical Philosophy Collection (Anti Capitalism Anti Globalization Communism)

THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO (The Bestselling World Revolution Manual) by KARL MARX & FRIEDRICH ENGELS Special NOOK Edition The Communist Manifesto NOOKbook Anarchist Revolution Books Radical Philosophy Collection (Anti Capitalism Anti Globalization Communism)

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Overview

OVERVIEW

The Communist Manifesto, originally titled Manifesto of the Communist Party (German: Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei) is a short 1848 book written by the German Marxist political theorists Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It has since been recognized as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. Commissioned by the Communist League, it laid out the League's purposes and program. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and present) and the problems of capitalism, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms.

The book contains Marx and Engels' Marxist theories about the nature of society and politics, that in their own words, "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles." It also briefly features their ideas for how the capitalist society of the time would eventually be replaced by socialism, and then eventually communism.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. BOURGEOIS AND PROLETARIANS
II. PROLETARIANS AND COMMUNISTS
III SOCIALIST AND COMMUNIST LITERATURE
1. REACTIONARY SOCIALISM
2. CONSERVATIVE, OR BOURGEOIS, SOCIALISM
3. CRITICAL-UTOPIAN SOCIALISM AND COMMUNISM
IV. POSITION OF THE COMMUNISTS IN RELATION TO THE VARIOUS EXISTING OPPOSITION PARTIES


EXCERPT

"The history of all hitherto existing societies is the history of class struggles.
Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re-constitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes.

In the earlier epochs of history, we find almost everywhere a complicated arrangement of society into various orders, a manifold gradation of social rank. In ancient Rome we have patricians, knights, plebeians, slaves; in the Middle Ages, feudal lords, vassals, guild-masters, journeymen, apprentices, serfs; in almost all of these classes, again, subordinate gradations.

The modern bourgeois society that has sprouted from the ruins of feudal society has not done away with class antagonisms. It has but established new classes, new conditions of oppression, new forms of struggle in place of the old ones. Our epoch, the epoch of the bourgeoisie, possesses, however, this distinctive feature: it has simplified the class antagonisms: Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes, directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat.

From the serfs of the Middle Ages sprang the chartered burghers of the earliest towns. From these burgesses the first elements of the bourgeoisie were developed.
The discovery of America, the rounding of the Cape, opened up fresh ground for the rising bourgeoisie. The East-Indian and Chinese markets, the colonisation of America, trade with the colonies, the increase in the means of exchange and in commodities generally, gave to commerce, to navigation, to industry, an impulse never before known, and thereby, to the revolutionary element in the tottering feudal society, a rapid development.

The feudal system of industry, under which industrial production was monopolised by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets. The manufacturing system took its place. The guild-masters were pushed on one side by the manufacturing middle class; division of labour between the different corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of labour in each single workshop.

Meantime the markets kept ever growing, the demand ever rising. Even manufacture no longer sufficed. Thereupon, steam and machinery revolutionised industrial production. The place of manufacture was taken by the giant, Modern Industry, the place of the industrial middle class, by industrial millionaires, the leaders of whole industrial armies, the modern bourgeois.

Modern industry has established the world-market, for which the discovery of America paved the way. This market has given an immense development to commerce, to navigation, to communication by land. This development has, in its time, reacted on the extension of industry; and in proportion as industry, commerce, navigation, railways extended, in the same proportion the bourgeoisie developed, increased its capital, and pushed into the background every class handed down from the Middle Ages.

We see, therefore, how the modern bourgeoisie is itself the product of a long course of development, of a series of revolutions in the modes of production and of exchange."

Product Details

BN ID: 2940012343178
Publisher: Anarchist Revolution Books Radical Philosophy
Publication date: 03/25/2011
Series: The Coming Revolution Nook Anarchy Revolution & Radical Philosophy Anarchist Revolutionary Books Anti-Capitalism , #2
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
File size: 149 KB

About the Author

Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a German philosopher, political economist, historian, political theorist, sociologist, and revolutionary socialist, who developed the socio-political theory of Marxism. His Marxist ideas played a significant role in the development of modern social science and also in the socialist political movement. He published various books during his lifetime, with the most notable being The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Capital (1867-1894), many of which were co-written with his friend, the fellow German revolutionary socialist Friedrich Engels.

Born into a wealthy middle class family in Triers, Marx went on to study at both the University of Bonn and the University of Berlin, where he became interested in the philosophical ideas of the Young Hegelians. Following the completion of his studies, he became a journalist, writing for a radical newspaper, the Rheinische Zeitung, where he began to use Hegelian concepts of dialectical materialism to influence his ideas on socialism. Moving to Paris, France in 1843, he began writing for other radical newspapers, the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher and Vorwärts!, as well as writing a series of books, several of which were co-written with Engels. Exiled to Brussels in Belgium in 1845, he became a leading figure of the Communist League, before moving to London, England in 1849, where, living in poverty, he proceeded to continue writing and formulating his theories about the nature of society.

Marx's widespread influence revolves around his ethical message; a "morally empowering language of critique" against the dominant capitalist society. Marx predicted that capitalism, like previous socioeconomic systems, would inevitably produce internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system.[5] Just as capitalism replaced feudalism, he believed socialism would, in its turn, replace capitalism, and lead to a stateless, classless society called pure communism. This would emerge after a transitional period called the "dictatorship of the proletariat": a period sometimes referred to as the "workers state" or "workers' democracy". Marx also argued that socio-economic change occurred through organized revolutionary action, and that both social theorists and underprivileged people should act to carry it out.

(From Wikipedia)

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