Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a type of dementia that can be very hard on both the patient and the caregiver. Currently, five million Americans have been diagnosed with ADand that number is likely to triple by 2050. While the cause of Alzheimer’s disease is still a mystery, new research has increased our knowledge of certain aspects of the disease. Perhaps most significant, studies show that proper diet may make a real difference, not only in slowing the progression of AD, but also in preventing it. In this groundbreaking book, a notable expert on Alzheimer’s disease has teamed up with a leading researcher of nutrition to create a unique guide to understanding and managing this serious condition. The Alzheimer’s Prevention and Treatment Diet outlines a cutting-edge nutritional program that will be of interest both to Alzheimer’s patients and to anybody who wants to maintain optimal memory and mental agility for years to come. The book begins with an overview of Alzheimer’s disease, outlining its symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and current treatment methods. You’ll also learn how Alzheimer’s disease differs from other forms of memory loss and cognitive impairment. Next, Drs. Isaacson and Ochner take a closer look at the impact of nutrition on your ability to think and remember, examining the effects of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins on the brain. Then, they share their innovative program for Alzheimer’s prevention, showing you how to maximize your cognitive health through diet and exercise. Finally, the authors give tips for the caregiver on adapting and implementing the program for people who already have Alzheimer’s, decreasing the speed with which symptoms worsen. If Alzheimer’s disease is a concern for you or a loved one, The Alzheimer’s Prevention and Treatment Diet will give you the information you need to fight back. Using Dr. Isaacson and Dr. Ochner’s recommendations, you can put into practice what the evidence is showing usthat what you eat can make all the difference for your mind.
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About the Author
Richard Isaacson, MD, is the founder and director of the Alzheimer’s Prevention Clinic at Weill Cornell Medicine and New York-Presbyterian, where he is also an Associate Professor of Neurology and director of the Neurology Residency Training Program. Dr. Isaacson completed his residency in neurology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School and did his medical internship at Mount Sinai Medical Center in Miami Beach, where he later became the associate medical director of the Wien Center for Alzheimer’s disease.
Christopher Ochner, PhD, is an assistant professor of psychiatry at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital. He received his doctorate in clinical psychology from Drexel University and went on to join the faculty at Columbia University, where he became the youngest member to run an independent research laboratory. Dr. Ochner has devoted his career to studying the relationship between food intake and the brain, receiving several awards from the National Institutes of Health to support his research.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgments Preface Introduction1. Understanding Alzheimer’s Disease2. Why Does Diet Matter? 3. The Elements of Nutrition4. Diets That Improve Brain Health5. The APT Diet6. Other Strategies for AD Prevention7. Managing the Challenges of AD DementiaConclusion Glossary Resources Nutrition and Activity LogsBibliography About the Authors Index
The Alzheimer’s epidemic may be the greatest public health crisis facing our world today. There are over 5 million Americans with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and millions more are affected throughout Canada, Europe, Australia, and the rest of the world. One out of nine people age sixty-five and over has dementia, and over a third of individuals over the age of eighty-five have AD. The increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease is due in part to the advancing age of our population. Advancing age is the primary risk factor for AD, and with more and more baby boomers turning sixty-five every year, the number of AD cases is projected to more than triple by the year 2050!But while advancing age may be the biggest factor behind the rise of Alzheimer’s disease, it is not the sole factor. Poor dietary habits also play an important role. It turns out that the foods you eat have an enormous effect on your risk of Alzheimer’s disease. An unhealthy diet not only contributes to obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndromeall conditions that seem to increase the risk of dementiabut may also directly influence the ways in which your brain works. Poor lifestyle habits, such as a lack of exercise, are also associated with a higher risk of AD.The good news is that diet and other lifestyle practices are well within your control. Based on the most recent scientific research, and supported by our real-life experience helping patients, The Alzheimer’s Prevention and Treatment Diet will give you the dietary strategies you need to enhance your well-being, strengthen the health of your brain, and improve your ability to fight Alzheimer’s disease. We’ve shared these strategies with our patients and our own family members, and now we’d like to share them with you. That’s because anyone and everyonebe they nine or ninety years of agecan make the lifestyle changes that lead to better health and cognition. Our goal is to guide you in making choices that will not only improve your overall well-being but also protect your brain.The first four chapters of The Alzheimer’s Prevention and Treatment Diet offer the information you need to understand Alzheimer’s, the link between Alzheimer’s and nutrition, and our diet program. Chapter 1 presents a comprehensive overview of Alzheimer’s disease, detailing AD’s stages and symptoms, explaining the difference between age-related cognitive decline and cognitive decline due to AD, and looking at the condition’s causes and risk factors. The chapter ends with a brief discussion of AD diagnosis and AD research trials.Chapter 2 zeroes in on our focus of prevention through diet by answering the question, “Why does diet matter?” The chapter first looks at the various ways in which foods can affect the brain. It then examines two nutrition-related health problemsexcess body fat and diabetesand discusses their association with Alzheimer’s disease. Finally, it introduces new dietary concepts that may hold the keys to the future of AD prevention and treatment.The dietary strategies and guidelines that form the foundation of the Alzheimer’s Prevention and Treatment Diet are based on the effect that the substances known as macronutrientscarbohydrates, protein, and fatshave on health in general and brain health in particular. Chapter 3 provides basic information about these dietary components and explains how by carefully selecting both the quantity and the quality of your carbs, proteins, and fats, you can help protect brain and memory function.Over the last few decades, there has been increased interest in the use of nutrition to enhance brain health and avoid or manage neurological disorders such as AD. Studies have explored a range of specific nutrients, specific foods, dietary patterns, and other approaches that that may have the potential to prevent or treat cognitive decline. Chapter 4 focuses on the most important of these studies and diets, including the Mediterranean diet, the ketogenic diet, the MIND diet, calorie-restrictive diets, and the FINGER study. It then turns its attention to the Alzheimer’s Prevention and Treatment Diet, which takes into consideration all of the latest evidence on ADincluding the studies presented in the chapterbut integrates unique elements that contribute to its effectiveness and accessibility.Chapters 5, 6, and 7 put the information from the earlier chapters into action by presenting a practical guide to making dietary and other lifestyle changes necessary to prevent, delay the onset, or slow the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Here, you’ll find what you need to know to protect and enhance your cognitive health.Chapter 5 is a step-by-step guide to our nine-week diet plan. The chapter begins by explaining the dietary goals of the Alzheimer’s Prevention and Treatment Diet. Then, for each week, we instruct you in planning and preparing for that week’s dietary and lifestyle changes; provide specific dietary guidelines; and recommend exercise and other activities that can further enhance your cognitive well-being. This proven approach gradually introduces change into your life and also enables you to successfully face any challenges you may encounter, from eating on the go to dining out. Lists of recommended foods and brain-healthy snacks, a special section on meal replacements, and sample menus ease your transition to a brain-healthy lifestyle.Although diet is one of the most important weapons we have in the fight against Alzheimer’s disease, it is not the only weapon. Research has shown that the best way to prevent and treat Alzheimer’s is to use a multifaceted approach that includes specific nutritional supplements, physical exercise, stimulating intellectual and social activities, and stress-reduction techniques. Chapter 6 guides you in successfully using these approaches to not only protect your brain but also enhance the quality of your everyday life.As the name suggests, the Alzheimer’s Prevention and Treatment Diet is designed to both prevent the development of cognitive problems and slow further decline in those who have already been diagnosed with the disease. However, as AD progresses, it can become difficult to maintain optimum nutrition. Chapter 7 explores the problems that may develop with the onset of AD symptoms and offers proven tips for managing them so that the person with AD can receive the best nutrition possible. Since diet can be affectedfor better or worseby medication, this chapter also looks at the medications most often prescribed to manage the symptoms of AD and guides you in timing meals and drug therapy so that they work hand in hand. Finally, Chapter 7 provides helpful tips and strategies for caregivers and others who have people with AD in their life.We have tried to make the information in this book easy to understand and to keep the use of medical- and nutrition-related terminology to a minimum. You will not need a medical degree to understand the science behind our diet program! But some terminology is necessary to explain brain function and the impact that foods and their nutrients have on the body. With this in mind, we created a Glossary (page 215) that defines the terms used in our book. Turn to it whenever you want to double-check the meaning of a word or phrase with which you’re not familiar.Throughout the book, we emphasize the importance of understanding AD as well as the effect that nutrition can have on your brain so that you can make the best dietary choices possible. This book provides a solid foundation of knowledge, but it’s important that you have access to further information so that you can continue to follow a healthy diet throughout your life. That’s why we have compiled a comprehensive Resources list, which not only guides you to websites that can offer detailed nutritional data, but also suggests organizations and sites that provide a wealth of information on Alzheimer’s disease, its risk factors, its stages, its management, and other topics of interest. Also included are organizations geared to assist family members who serve as caregivers for people with AD.Finally, we’ve given you charts to help you track your progress in adopting a brain-healthy diet. In these charts, you’ll record food intake; jot down the carbohydrate counts that are so important to the APT Diet; and make lists of favorite foods, brain-healthy snacks, and moreall with the goal of helping you implement positive changes. If you prefer, you can track your progress online with the Alzheimer’s Disease-Nutrition Tracking System (AD-NTS), which is available on the Alzheimer’s Universe website. (See page 232 of the Resources list.)Everybody has the potential to lead a brain-healthier life, and our gradual approach to dietary and lifestyle changes maximizes your chance of success. As you continue on the Alzheimer’s Prevention and Treatment Program, remember that Rome wasn’t built in a day, and neither is a brain-protective lifestyle. Over time, the small changes you start implementing today will pay off. There is no is more important investment than the investment you make in your health.