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Teaching Children to Read

Teaching Children to Read

by D. Ray Reutzel, Robert B. Cooter
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In a comprehensive, evidenced-based, accessible book, renowned authors D. Ray Reutzel and Robert B. Cooter, Jr. show clearly that it is the teacher who makes the difference in the development of literacy in children grades K-8.

Reutzel and Cooter’s unique approach organizes each chapter around seven pillars of evidence-based, effective reading instruction: Teacher Knowledge, Assessment, Effective Instruction Strategies, Response to Intervention, Family and Community Connections, and, new to this edition, Student Motivation and New Literacies/Technology.

Here’s what makes this new Sixth Edition unique:

· Two new pillars of effective reading instruction–Motivation and Engagement and Technology and New Literacieshave been added to the previous edition’s five pillars. Now each chapter is organized into seven pillars of evidence-based, effective reading instruction: Teacher Knowledge, Assessment, Evidence-Based Instructional Practices, Response to Intervention, Motivation and Engagement, Technology and New Literacies, and Family and Community Connections. Teachers can count on each chapter’s presentation to follow a predictable organization.

· Greatly expanded coverage of working with English learners includes important information about the particular learning needs of English learners plus methods for assessment and instruction.

· Marginal A+RISE Teaching Strategies align with relevant concepts in the main body of the text.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780133548686
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 01/28/2014
Edition description: New Edition
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

D. Ray Reutzel is currently the Emma Eccles Jones Endowed Chair and Distinguished Professor of Early Childhood Literacy Education and Director of the Emma Eccles Jones Center for Early Childhood Education at Utah State University. He works with teachers and children in public schools across the nation. A former Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs at Southern Utah University; Associate Dean of Teacher Education in the David O. McKay School of Education; and former Chair of the Department of Elementary Education at Brigham Young University, Professor Reutzel received the 1992 Karl G. Maeser Distinguished Research Professor Award while at BYU. Ray has taught in Kindergarten, 1st grade, 3rd grade, and 6th grade.

Dr. Reutzel is the author of more than 185 articles, books, book chapters, and monographs and has published in such journals as Early Childhood Research Quarterly, The Elementary School Journal, Reading Research Quarterly, Journal of Reading Behavior, Journal of Literacy Research, Journal of Educational Research, Reading Psychology, Reading and Writing Quarterly, Reading Research and Instruction, Language Arts, Journal of Reading, and The Reading Teacher, Instructor, among others. He is the past Editor of Literacy Research and Instruction and the The Reading Teacher journals, and co-author of several best selling college textbooks.

Dr. Robert B. Cooter, Jr. is Distinguished Professor of Urban Literacy Research at The University of Memphis. His primary research focus pertains to research-based reading instruction for children living at the poverty level. Professor Cooter founded The Memphis Literacy Academy, an outreach program in Memphis City Schools dedicated to raising the expertise of hundreds of inner-city teachers of reading. He is also co-principal investigator for the Memphis Striving Readers Program (grades 6-9 content areas), a $16 million middle school literacy research project in Memphis City Schools.

Dr. Cooter has authored or co-authored nearly 100 journal articles and some 19 books in reading education including several best sellers. In March of 2006, he and Dr. J. Helen Perkins, also of the University of Memphis, are co-editors of The Reading Teacher published by the International Reading Association.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Effective Reading Instruction: The Teacher Makes the Difference


Chapter Questions

The First Day…

Why is Learning to Read so Important?

What is Reading?

Teachers Make the Difference

The Seven Characteristics of Highly Effective Reading Teachers

Characteristic 1:   Highly effective reading teachers understand how children learn oral language and how children learn to read.

The Structure of Language

Characteristic 2: Highly effective reading teachers are excellent classroom managers.

Characteristic 3: Highly effective reading teachers begin reading instruction by first assessing what students already know and can do.

Characteristic 4: Highly effective reading teachers know how to adapt instruction to meet the needs of learners with special needs.

Characteristic 5: Highly effective reading teachers teach the essential components of reading using evidence-based instructional practices

Characteristic 6: Highly effective reading teachers model reading and writing applications throughout the day.

Characteristic 7: Highlyeffective reading teachers partner with other teachers, parents and community members to ensure children's learning.

The Five Pillars of Effective Reading Instruction

Summary: Reading Teachers Make the Difference!

Classroom Applications

Recommended Readings


Chapter 2 Developing Children’s Oral Language


Chapter Questions

A Trip to the Zoo… and a Hairy Question

What Do Teachers Need To Know About Oral Language?

What Is Language?

Phonology: Sounds in Spoken Words

Orthography: Connecting Letters and Sounds

Morphology: The Building Blocks of Meaning in Words

Syntax and Grammar: The “Rule Book” in Language

Semantics: Connecting Past Experiences to Reading

Pragmatics: Using Language to Get What We Need

How Do Children Develop Oral Language?

The Behaviorist View of Oral Language Development

The Innatist View of Oral Language Development

The Constructivist View of Oral Language Development

Social Interactionist View of Oral Language Development

The Developmental Stages of Oral Language Development

What Does Research Say About The Relationship Between Oral Language And Reading?

Assessing Children’s Oral Language development and Usage

Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL)

Get it Got it Go!  - Picture Naming Test

The Oral Language Acquisition Inventory (OLAI)

Principles of Effective Oral Language Instruction

Promoting Oral Language Learning in the School and Classroom

Oral Language Instructional Strategies

Instrumental Oral Language Instruction: Interviews

Regulatory Oral Language Instruction: Giving and Following Commands

Interactional Oral Language Instruction: “Phone” and “Small Group” Conversations

Personal Oral Language Instruction: About Me!

Heuristic Oral Language: Explaining and Convincing

Imaginative Oral Language: Let’s Pretend

Representational Oral Language: Instructions & Directions

Divertive Oral Language: That’s Funny

Authoritative Oral Language: Now Hear This!

Perpetuating Oral Language: Remember This!

Differentiating Oral Language Instruction

Making Family and Community Connections

Involving Parents Having Limited English or Reading Ability


Classroom Applications

Recommended Readings


Chapter 3 Early Reading Instruction: Teaching the Essentials


Chapter Questions

Inviting Them In…

What Is Early Reading And How Do Young Children Become Readers?

What Does The Research Say About The Essentials Of Early Reading Instruction?

How Is Young Children’s Early Reading Assessed?

Print Concepts

Phonemic Awareness

Letter Name Knowledge

What Are The Characteristics Of Effective Early Reading Instruction?

What Are Strategies For Teaching Early Reading Effectively?

Print Concepts Instruction

Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Instruction


Letter Name Instruction

How Can Early Reading Instruction Be Adapted to Meet The Needs of Diverse Learners?

What Can Families and Communities Do to Develop Children’s Early Reading


Classroom Applications

Recommended Readings


Chapter 4 Phonics And Word Identification


Chapter Questions

Mr. Bill and Emily

How Do Children Learn to “Decode” Words?

What is phonics?

Learning the Alphabetic Principle

Phonics and Related Word Attack Skills

Some Important Phonics Generalizations to Teach

Other Important Phonics Terms and Skills to be Taught

Onset and Rime

Structural Analysis: An Important Decoding Tool

Putting It All Together: A Sequence for Phonics and Word Identification Skill Instruction

How Do Effective Teachers Assess Letter And Word Identification?

Letter Naming Test (LNT)

Word Attack Survey

The Running Record

Commercial Diagnostic Reading Tests

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)

What Does Research Evidence Show Are The Best Ways Of Teaching Phonics?

Phonics: What Do We Know From Research and Practice?

Favorite Strategies for Teaching Phonics

Creating Nonsense Words

Online Phonics and Word Attack Activities

Who Has Difficulty In Learning Phonics And What Can Be Done To Assist Them?

Interactive Strategies

Students with Dyslexia

English Language Learners

What Strategies Can Parents Use To Help Their Child Learn Phonics Skills?

Words to Go!

Activities for Parents to Increase Children’s Print and Phonological Awareness


Classroom Applications

Recommended Readings


Chapter 5 Developing Children’s Reading Fluency


Chapter Questions

One Minute of Reading



What Is Reading Fluency?

How Do Children Develop Reading Fluency?

Chall’s Stages of Reading Fluency

The Stages of Reading is Action

What Does Research Say About Fluency And Reading?          

How Is Reading Fluency Assessed?

Assessing Oral Reading Fluency

Assessing Expressive Reading

 What Are The Characteristics of Effective Fluency Instruction?

 Fluency Begins Early

What Are Effective Fluency Teaching Strategies?

Implementing the Fluency Instruction Plan

How Can Reading Fluency Instruction Be Adapted oo Meet Diverse Student Needs?

What Can families and Communities do to DEVELOp Children’s READING FLUENCY


Classroom Applications

Recommended Readings


Chapter 6 Increasing Reading Vocabulary


Chapter Questions

What Does Research Tell Us About Vocabulary Learning?

How Do Students Acquire New Vocabulary?

Research on Vocabulary Learning

Vocabulary is Built through Language Interactions         

There Are Four Types of Vocabulary

There Are Levels of Vocabulary Learning 

What Research Tell Us about Teaching Vocabulary

Which Words Should Be Taught?

Why You Shouldn’t Try to Teach ALL Unknown Words

Words You Should Teach

How Can Teachers Effectively Assess Students’ Vocabulary Knowledge?

Before and After Word Knowledge Self-Ratings

Teacher-Constructed Vocabulary Tests

Modified Cloze Passages

Maze Passages

Vocabulary Flash Cards

Published Diagnostic Vocabulary Tests

What Are Examples Of Research-Proven Strategies Used In Vocabulary Instruction?

Word Banks

Specific Word Instruction

Making Words

Function (“Four-Letter”) Words

Teaching Word Functions and Changes

Helping Students Acquire New Vocabulary Independently

Word Learning Strategies

Encouraging Wide Reading

Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Learning

Vocabulary Overview

What Can Be Done To Assist Students With Special Needs In Vocabulary Learning?

The Vocabulary Cluster Strategy

Semantic Maps

Linking Multicultural Experiences with Vocabulary Development

How Can “Reading Backpacks” Be Used to Involve Parents In Their Child’s Vocabulary Learning?


Classroom Application

Recommended Readings



Chapter 7 Teaching Reading Comprehension


Chapter Questions

Vignette Title

What Is Reading Comprehesion?

How Do Children Develop Reading Comprehesion?

What Does Research Say About Reading Comprehension Instruction?

A Sequence for Reading Comprehension Skill Instruction Grades K-3

How Is Reading Comprehension Assessed?

Eliciting and Scoring Narrative Oral Retellings

Eliciting and Scoring Expository Oral Retellings

What Are The Characteristics Of Effective Comprehension Instruction?

What Are Effective Reading Comprehension Strategies We Should Teach?

The Reader

The Activity or Strategies

Asking Questions at Differing Levels of Thinking                                   

Question—Answer Relationships

Questioning the Author

Comprehension Monitoring and Fix Ups


The Situational Context

Explicit Comprehension Strategy Instruction

Affective Responses: Interpreting and Elaborating Meaning.

Multiple Strategies Reading Comprehension Instruction

How Can Reading Comprehension Instruction Be Adapted to Meet Diverse Student Needs?

What Can Families and Communities Do to Develop Children’s Reading Comprehension?


Classroom Applications


Recommended Readings


Chapter 8 Writing


Chapter Questions

It Begins…

How Is Reading Related to Writing?

How Writing Develops

Transitional Stage

U<nique Writing Patterns Used by Authors

How is writing development evaluated?

Rubrics and Writing Assessment: Some Things to Remember

Analytic Scoring Rubrics

Holistic Scoring Rubrics

The 6-Trait Model for Writing Assessment

How is the writing process taught?

Understanding the Writing Process

How Do Interactive Writing Procedures Help Learners Acquire New Writing Skills?

Writing Aloud, Writing TO: A Way of Structuring Your Teaching

Shared Writing</H3> 

Organizing for Instruction: The Writing Workshop

Organizing for Instruction: The Writing Center

Classroom Computers and Writing Development

The First Six Weeks of Writing Instruction

How Can We Adapt Writing Instruction To Meet The Needs of All Learners?

Reading and Analyzing Nonfiction Strategy (RAN)

Online Technology Experts

What Is A Proven Strategy For Involving Parents in Writing Instruction?

Traveling Tales Backpack


Classroom Applications

Recommended Readings



Chapter 9 Assessment

Chapter Questions

Great Teaching Begins with Assessment!

Princples and Purposes of Reading Assessment

There Are Four Purposes of Reading Assessment

Where Do We Begin? A Classroom Teacher’s Perspective

SCREENING and Progress-Monitoring ASSESSMENTS

Screening Assessments

Progress-Monitoring in the Reading Classroom

Kid Watching

Assessing Reading Interests and Self-Perception

Self-Rating Scales for Subject Area Reading

Assessing Background Knowledge

Family Surveys of Reading Habits

Screening Checklists and Scales

Assessing Students’ Reading of Nonfiction Texts

Published Reading Tests For Screening & Progress-Monitoring Assessments

Informal Reading Inventory

Curriculum-Based Measurement

Outcome Assessments

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)

Texas Primary Reading Inventory (TPRI)

Diagnostic Assessments

Diagnosing Vocabulary Knowledge

Individual Diagnostic Reading Tests

Individually Administered Achievement Tests

Getting Organized: Profiling Your Class

Two Documents Needed for Profiling

Classroom Profiling Document

IF — THEN Thinking


Classroom Applications

Recommended Readings


Chapter 10 Programs and Standards for Reading Instruction

Chapter Questions

Which reading program is best?

What is meant by “standards” for reading instruction?

Overview of the Standards-Based Movement

Where can I find my state’s reading standards and the tools to assess them?

What are basal or “core” reading programs?

Understanding the Basal Reader

Anatomy of the Basal Reading Approach

Beginning Reading Texts

The Workbook


Record Keeping

Production and Organization of Basal Readers

Organization of the Basal Reader

Standards for Evaluating and Adopting Basal Readers

Ways of Evaluating Basal Readers

A Consumer’s Guide to Evaluating a Core Reading Program

Recent Evaluations of Basal (Core) Reading Programs: Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Fluency

What programs are available for the struggling reader?

Reading Recovery

Success for All

Four Blocks

Early Steps

Reading Mastery

Reading Expeditions: Language, Literacy, & Vocabulary!

Waterford Early Reading Program

Supplementing Your Reading Program with “Leveled Books”

How can basal reading programs be adapted to assist the struggling reader?

Reading the Basal Straight Through

Repeated Readings

Supported, or Buddy, Reading

What programs area available for helping students with diverse cultural or language needs succeed?

How can teachers help parents better understand reading standards?


Classroom Applications

Recommended Readings


Chapter 11 Effective Reading Instruction and Organization in Grades K-3


Chapters Questions


What Do Teachers Need To Know And Do To Provide Effective K-3 Reading Instruction?

How Do K-3 Children Develop As Readers?

Before Stage 1: Pseudo Reading

Stage 1 Reading Development: Making the Connection Between Letters and Sounds

Stage 2 Reading Development: Confirmation, Fluency and Ungluing from Print

What Does Research Say about the Relationship Between K-3 Reading Instruction And K-3 Children’s Reading Achievement?

What Are The Characteristics Of Effective K-3 Reading Instruction?

What Are The Characteristics Of Effective K-3 Reading Instruction?

First Steps: Preparing the Classroom Environment

Designing a Classroom Floor Plan

Planning Whole-Class Instruction Areas

Planning Small Group Instruction and Learning Centers

Organizing Classroom Literacy Tools and Materials

Making the Most of Classroom Display Areas to Support Literacy Learning

Planning and Organizing Necessary Storage Spaces

Grouping Students for Effective Reading Instruction

Getting Off to a Good Start: Planning the First Day of School in the K-3 Classroom

Preparing Parents and Students for Success: Making the Initial Contact with a Letter

The First Day: First Impressions

Establishing a Routine for What to Do Before School Begins Each Day

Establishing a Morning Routine for What to Do Each Day When School Begins

Making the Classroom Work: Rules and Consequences

Reading from the Start: Getting Attention and Giving Directions

Reading and Writing Activities on the First Day

Planning the First Week of K-3 Reading and Writing Instruction

        Assessing Where Students Are

Training Students to Effectively Use Learning Centers

Preparing Written Lessons Plans to Build Teacher Capacity for Explicit Instruction

Designing a Year Long Curriculum Plan

Effective Reading and Writing Practices for All Year Long

Differentiating K-3 Instruction to Meet Diverse Student Needs


Making Family and Community Connections in the K-3 Schooling Years



Classroom Applications

Recommended Readings


Chapter 12 Effective Reading Instruction and Organization in Grades 4-8

Chapter Questions

Ms. Trahan Gets Things Popping!

What does research tell us about the special challenges of content reading materials?

Changing Realities: Reading Instruction in the Transition Years

Keeping Our “Balance”

The Challenge of the “Textbook Genre”

Textbook Reading is Vastly Different from Reading Stories

Scientifically-based Reading Strategies

How can teachers assess students’ subject area knowledge?

Analyzing Texts<H1>Begins: Performing a Content Analysis

How do you assess student ability with content texts?

The Comprehensive Reading Inventory

Oral Retellings of Expository Texts

How do teachers prepare to teach informational texts?

Constructing Learning Tools for Students

Using Trade Books as Supplements to Textbooks

Using Graphic Organizers or GO! Charts

Study Guides

What are some successful ways to organize for instruction?

Integrating the Curriculum

Guidelines for Conducting Themed Studies

Thematic Unit Materials

Unit Scaffolding

How is reading and writing instruction organized?

Developing Integrated Curriculums

The Reading Workshop

Core Book Units

Themed Literature Units

Teaching Themed Literature Units: The Nuts and Bolts

Gathering Learning Resources

How can teachers use writing to improve learning?

Understanding the Writing Process

Prewriting Stage

Drafting Stage

Revising and Editing


The Writing Workshop

What are some study strategies that can help students improve their reading comprehension?

Efficient (Speed Reading) Study Strategies


Using Text Structures

What can done to help struggling readers succeed?

Good Decoding Is Not Sufficient for Comprehension Development

Commercial Programs for Low-Performing Readers

Comprehension “Strategy Families"

Improving Fluency

How can we help English Learners do well with content texts?

Modifying Linguistic Variables

Modifying Knowledge Variables


Classroom Applications

Recommended Readings

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