ISBN-10:
1786343568
ISBN-13:
9781786343567
Pub. Date:
10/13/2017
Publisher:
World Scientific Publishing Europe Ltd
Sorption Enhanced Reaction Processes

Sorption Enhanced Reaction Processes

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Overview

This book investigates the development of sorption enhanced reaction processes (SERPs) with detailed modelling and simulation, design and operation of units. SERPs are processes intensified by combining adsorption and reaction, reaction and membranes or reaction/adsorption/membranes in a single unit in order to overcome thermodynamic limitations of conversion in reversible reactions. The focus here is on gas phase and liquid phase processes involving different technologies, including pressure swing adsorptive reactors, membrane reactors and simulated moving bed reactors. Emphasis is also given to presenting data and practical applications of SERP products.Sorption Enhanced Reaction Processes provides undergraduate and graduate students of chemistry and chemical engineering, researchers and industrial engineers with a clear path towards process development of SERP, whatever the area of application.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781786343567
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Europe Ltd
Publication date: 10/13/2017
Series: Sustainable Chemistry Series , #1
Pages: 364
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

Preface v

About the Authors ix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Process Intensification 1

1.1.1 History 1

1.1.2 Classification 4

1.2 Integration of Reaction and Separation Operations 5

1.2.1 Multifunctionality 5

1.2.2 Potential advantages and disadvantages 7

1.2.3 Examples 9

1.3 Sorption Enhanced Reaction Processes 11

1.3.1 Reaction 11

1.3.2 Adsorption 13

1.3.3 Adsorptive reactors 17

1.3.4 Simulated moving bed reactor (SMBR) 22

1.3.5 Membrane reactors (MRs) 30

1.3.6 Applications 35

1.4 Conclusions 37

References 39

2 Gas-phase Adsorptive Reactor for Hydrogen Production Processes 45

2.1 Hydrogen Economy 45

2.1.1 Energy demand 45

2.1.2 Hydrogen as a clean fuel 47

2.1.3 Hydrogen as an energy carrier 47

2.2 Hydrogen Production 48

2.2.1 Feedstock 48

2.2.2 Technologies 50

2.2.3 Hydrogen separation and purification 53

2.2.4 Sorption enhanced hydrogen production processes 56

2.3 Material Developments 62

2.3.1 Catalysts 62

2.3.1.1 Active phases and supports 62

2.3.1.2 Reaction mechanism 66

2.3.1.3 Reforming kinetics 72

2.3.2 High temperature CO2 adsorbents 82

2.3.2.1 Candidates 82

2.3.2.2 Calcium oxide-based materials 84

2.3.2.3 Lithium-based adsorbents 87

2.3.2.4 Layered double hydroxides/hydrotalcite-like compounds 90

2.3.2.5 Other candidates 94

2.3.3 Multifunctional materials 98

2.3.4 Pellet modelling 101

2.4 Reactor Design 104

2.4.1 Experimental studies with fixed bed reactors 105

2.4.2 Experimental studies with fluidized bed reactors 110

2.4.3 Modelling and simulation 118

2.5 Regeneration and Cyclic Operation 129

2.5.1 Pressure swing 130

2.5.2 Temperature swing 137

2.6 Practical Applications 144

2.7 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 148

References 152

Membrane Reactors for Water-Gas Shift 169

3.1 Introduction - The Concept 169

3.2 Thermodynamic Aspects 171

3.3 Catalysts 175

3.4 Mechanisms and Kinetic Models 176

3.5 Membrane Types 181

3.5.1 Dense metal membranes 182

3.5.2 Microporous membranes 185

3.5.3 Others 186

3.5.4 Membranes for H2 vs. CO2 removal 186

3.5.5 Hydrogen permeation mechanism 189

3.6 Reactor Configurations 198

3.6.1 Packed bed membrane reactors 199

3.6.2 Fluidized-bed membrane reactors 203

3.6.3 Micro-membrane reactors 206

3.6.4 Sorption enhanced membrane reactors (SEMRs) 208

3.7 Modelling and Simulation 214

3.8 Parametric Study: Effect of Operating Variables 227

3.8.1 Effect of temperature 227

3.8.2 Effect of sweep gas 230

3.8.3 Effect of the H2O/CO molar ratio 232

3.8.4 Effect of total pressure 235

3.8.5 Effect of other parameters 238

3.9 Practical Applications and Pilot Scale 243

3.10 Conclusions 247

References 252

Liquid Phase Simulated Moving Bed Reactor 259

4.1 Simulated Moving Bed Technology: The Concept 259

4.2 Combining Reaction and Adsorption: Simulated Moving Bed Reactor 272

4.3 Process Development 283

4.4 SMBR for the Production of Organic Oxygenated Compounds: Acetals and Esters 293

4.4.1 Glycerol ethyl acetal 293

4.4.2 Butyl acrylate 297

4.5 An Integrated Process 301

4.6 Combining Reaction, Adsorption and Membrane Permeation: The PermSMBR 310

4.7 Conclusions 322

References 325

5 Conclusions and Perspectives 331

5.1 Looking Back 331

5.2 What are the Bottlenecks? 332

5.3 Looking Ahead 334

References 337

Index 341

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