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CHAPTER II THE BEGINNINGS OF THE REPUBLIC 8. The Commercial Treaty with Carthage in 509 B.C. and the Loss of Etruria. The first certain document in Roman history which we possess is a commercial treatythe treaty which Rome concluded with Carthage in 509 B.c., the first year of the republic. Polybius (iii., 22) has preserved its text, which is as follows: "The Romans and their allies shall not navigate beyond Cape Bel1 unless constrained by tempests or by enemies. ... If compelled to touch at our ports, they shall buy or take nothing except what is necessary to repair their ships and perform the sacrifices, and they shall depart again within- five days. Those who come for the sake of commerce [i. e. to Carthage or the African coast as far as Cape Bel or to Sardinia] shall not be obliged to pay any impost save what may be due to the crier or the public notary; and for all that shall be sold in the presence of these officers the State shall be guarantee to the vendor, and this shall apply alike to sales carried out in Africa and in Sardinia. If, moreover, any Roman shall come to the part of Sicily subject to the Carthaginians, hisrights shall in all respects be identical [with those of the Carthaginians]. The Carthaginians on their part undertake to do no harm to the cities of Ardea, Antium, Laurentum, Circei, and Terracina, or to any other Latin city subject to Rome. They undertake a similar obligation as regards the cities of Latium not subject to Rome. If it should happen that they occupy any such city, they shall restore it undamaged to the Romans, nor shall they build any fort in Latin territory. Should they enter the country in arms they shall not spend the nightthere."' 1 Cape Farina, cf. Polybius, iii., 23. The text of the treaty speaks clearly. Rome renounc...