The New State of the Art in Information Security: Now Covers Cloud Computing, the Internet of Things, and Cyberwarfare
Students and IT and security professionals have long relied on Security in Computing as the definitive guide to computer security attacks and countermeasures. Now, the authors have thoroughly updated this classic to reflect today’s newest technologies, attacks, standards, and trends.
Security in Computing, Fifth Edition, offers complete, timely coverage of all aspects of computer security, including users, software, devices, operating systems, networks, and data. Reflecting rapidly evolving attacks, countermeasures, and computing environments, this new edition introduces best practices for authenticating users, preventing malicious code execution, using encryption, protecting privacy, implementing firewalls, detecting intrusions, and more. More than two hundred end-of-chapter exercises help the student to solidify lessons learned in each chapter.
Combining breadth, depth, and exceptional clarity, this comprehensive guide builds carefully from simple to complex topics, so you always understand all you need to know before you move forward.
You’ll start by mastering the field’s basic terms, principles, and concepts. Next, you’ll apply these basics in diverse situations and environments, learning to ”think like an attacker” and identify exploitable weaknesses. Then you will switch to defense, selecting the best available solutions and countermeasures. Finally, you’ll go beyond technology to understand crucial management issues in protecting infrastructure and data.
New coverage includes
- A full chapter on securing cloud environments and managing their unique risks
- Extensive new coverage of security issues associated with user—web interaction
- New risks and techniques for safeguarding the Internet of Things
- A new primer on threats to privacy and how to guard it
- An assessment of computers and cyberwarfare–recent attacks and emerging risks
- Security flaws and risks associated with electronic voting systems
|Edition description:||New Edition|
|Product dimensions:||6.90(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.40(d)|
About the Author
Charles Pfleeger is an internationally known expert on computer and communications security. He was originally a professor at the University of Tennessee, leaving there to join computer security research and consulting companies Trusted Information Systems and Arca Systems (later Exodus Communications and Cable and Wireless). With Trusted Information Systems he was Director of European Operations and Senior Consultant. With Cable and Wireless he was Director of Research and a member of the staff of the Chief Security Officer. He was chair of the IEEE Computer Society Technical Committee on Security and Privacy.
Shari Lawrence Pfleeger is widely known as a software engineering and computer security researcher, most recently as a Senior Computer Scientist with the Rand Corporation and as Research Director of the Institute for Information Infrastructure Protection. She is currently Editor in Chief of IEEE Security & Privacy magazine.
Jonathan Margulies is the CTO of Qmulos, a cybersecurity consulting firm. After receiving his Masters Degree in Computer Science from Cornell University, Mr. Margulies spent nine years at Sandia National Labs, researching and developing solutions to protect national security and critical infrastructure systems from advanced persistent threats. He then went on to NIST's National Cybersecurity Center of Excellence, where he worked with a variety of critical infrastructure companies to create industry-standard security architectures. In his free time, Mr. Margulies edits the “Building Security In” section of IEEE Security & Privacy magazine.
Table of Contents
About the Authors xxxiii
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 What Is Computer Security? 2
1.2 Threats 6
1.3 Harm 21
1.4 Vulnerabilities 28
1.5 Controls 28
1.6 Conclusion 31
1.7 What’s Next? 32
1.8 Exercises 34
Chapter 2: Toolbox: Authentication, Access Control, and Cryptography 36
2.1 Authentication 38
2.2 Access Control 72
2.3 Cryptography 86
2.4 Exercises 127
Chapter 3: Programs and Programming 131
3.1 Unintentional (Nonmalicious) Programming Oversights 133
3.2 Malicious Code—Malware 166
3.3 Countermeasures 196
Chapter 4: The Web—User Side 232
4.1 Browser Attacks 234
4.2 Web Attacks Targeting Users 245
4.3 Obtaining User or Website Data 260
4.4 Email Attacks 267
4.5 Conclusion 277
4.6 Exercises 278
Chapter 5: Operating Systems 280
5.1 Security in Operating Systems 280
5.2 Security in the Design of Operating Systems 308
5.3 Rootkit 329
5.4 Conclusion 338
5.5 Exercises 339
Chapter 6: Networks 341
6.1 Network Concepts 342
Part I—War on Networks: Network Security Attacks 353
6.2 Threats to Network Communications 354
6.3 Wireless Network Security 374
6.4 Denial of Service 396
6.5 Distributed Denial-of-Service 421
Part II—Strategic Defenses: Security Countermeasures 432
6.6 Cryptography in Network Security 432
6.7 Firewalls 451
6.8 Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems 474
6.9 Network Management 489
6.10 Conclusion 496
6.11 Exercises 496
Chapter 7: Databases 501
7.1 Introduction to Databases 502
7.2 Security Requirements of Databases 507
7.3 Reliability and Integrity 513
7.4 Database Disclosure 518
7.5 Data Mining and Big Data 535
7.6 Conclusion 549
Chapter 8: Cloud Computing 551
8.1 Cloud Computing Concepts 551
8.2 Moving to the Cloud 553
8.3 Cloud Security Tools and Techniques 560
8.4 Cloud Identity Management 568
8.5 Securing IaaS 579
8.6 Conclusion 583
8.7 Exercises 584
Chapter 9: Privacy 586
9.1 Privacy Concepts 587
9.2 Privacy Principles and Policies 596
9.3 Authentication and Privacy 610
9.4 Data Mining 616
9.5 Privacy on the Web 619
9.6 Email Security 632
9.7 Privacy Impacts of Emerging Technologies 636
9.8 Where the Field Is Headed 644
9.9 Conclusion 645
9.10 Exercises 645
Chapter 10: Management and Incidents 647
10.1 Security Planning 647
10.2 Business Continuity Planning 658
10.3 Handling Incidents 662
10.4 Risk Analysis 668
10.5 Dealing with Disaster 686
10.6 Conclusion 699
10.7 Exercises 700
Chapter 11: Legal Issues and Ethics 702
11.1 Protecting Programs and Data 704
11.2 Information and the Law 717
11.3 Rights of Employees and Employers 725
11.4 Redress for Software Failures 728
11.5 Computer Crime 733
11.6 Ethical Issues in Computer Security 744
11.7 Incident Analysis with Ethics 750
Chapter 12: Details of Cryptography 768
12.1 Cryptology 769
12.2 Symmetric Encryption Algorithms 779
12.3 Asymmetric Encryption with RSA 795
12.4 Message Digests 799
12.5 Digital Signatures 802
12.6 Quantum Cryptography 807
12.7 Conclusion 811
Chapter 13: Emerging Topics 813
13.1 The Internet of Things 814
13.2 Economics 821
13.3 Electronic Voting 834
13.4 Cyber Warfare 841
13.5 Conclusion 850
Every day, the news media give more and more visibility to the effects of computer security on our daily lives. For example, on a single day in June 2006, the Washington Post included three important articles about security. On the front page, one article discussed the loss of a laptop computer containing personal data on 26.5 million veterans. A second article, on the front page of the business section, described Microsoft's new product suite to combat malicious code, spying, and unsecured vulnerabilities in its operating system. Further back, a third article reported on a major consumer electronics retailer that inadvertently installed software on its customers' computers, making them part of a web of compromised slave computers. The sad fact is that news like this appears almost every day, and has done so for a number of years. There is no end in sight.
Even though the language of computer security--terms such as virus, Trojan horse, phishing, spyware--is common, the application of solutions to computer security problems is uncommon. Moreover, new attacks are clever applications of old problems. The pressure to get a new product or new release to market still in many cases overrides security requirements for careful study of potential vulnerabilities and countermeasures. Finally, many people are in denial, blissfully ignoring the serious harm that insecure computing can cause.
Why Read This Book?
Admit it. You know computing entails serious risks to the privacy and integrity of your data, or the operation of your computer. Risk is a fact of life: Crossing the street is risky, perhaps more so in some places than others, but you still cross the street. As a child you learned to stop and look both ways before crossing. As you became older you learned to gauge the speed of oncoming traffic and determine whether you had the time to cross. At some point you developed a sense of whether an oncoming car would slow down or yield. We hope you never had to practice this, but sometimes you have to decide whether darting into the street without looking is the best means of escaping danger. The point is all these matters depend on knowledge and experience. We want to help you develop the same knowledge and experience with respect to the risks of secure computing.
How do you control the risk of computer security?
- Learn about the threats to computer security.
- Understand what causes these threats by studying how vulnerabilities arise in the development and use of computer systems.
- Survey the controls that can reduce or block these threats.
- Develop a computing style--as a user, developer, manager, consumer, and voter--that balances security and risk.
The field of computer security changes rapidly, but the underlying problems remain largely unchanged. In this book you will find a progression that shows you how current complex attacks are often instances of more fundamental concepts.
Users and Uses of This Book
This book is intended for the study of computer security. Many of you want to study this topic: college and university students, computing professionals, managers, and users of all kinds of computer-based systems. All want to know the same thing: how to control the risk of computer security. But you may differ in how much information you need about particular topics: Some want a broad survey, while others want to focus on particular topics, such as networks or program development.
This book should provide the breadth and depth that most readers want. The book is organized by general area of computing, so that readers with particular interests can find information easily. The chapters of this book progress in an orderly manner, from general security concerns to the particular needs of specialized applications, and finally to overarching management and legal issues. Thus, the book covers five key areas of interest:
- introduction: threats, vulnerabilities, and controls
- encryption: the "Swiss army knife" of security controls
- code: security in programs, including applications, operating systems, database management systems, and networks
- management: building and administering a computing installation, from one computer to thousands, and understanding the economics of cybersecurity
- law, privacy, ethics: non-technical approaches by which society controls computer security risks
These areas are not equal in size; for example, more than half the book is devoted to code because so much of the risk is at least partly caused by program code that executes on computers.
The first chapter introduces the concepts and basic vocabulary of computer security. Studying the second chapter provides an understanding of what encryption is and how it can be used or misused. Just as a driver's manual does not address how to design or build a car, Chapter 2 is not for designers of new encryption schemes, but rather for users of encryption. Chapters 3 through 7 cover successively larger pieces of software: individual programs, operating systems, complex applications like database management systems, and finally networks, which are distributed complex systems. Chapter 8 discusses managing and administering security, and describes how to find an acceptable balance between threats and controls. Chapter 9 addresses an important management issue by exploring the economics of cybersecurity: understanding and communicating the costs and benefits. In Chapter 10 we turn to the personal side of computer security as we consider how security, or its lack, affects personal privacy. Chapter 11 covers the way society at large addresses computer security, through its laws and ethical systems. Finally, Chapter 12 returns to cryptography, this time to look at the details of the encryption algorithms themselves.
Within that organization, you can move about, picking and choosing topics of particular interest. Everyone should read Chapter 1 to build a vocabulary and a foundation. It is wise to read Chapter 2 because cryptography appears in so many different control techniques. Although there is a general progression from small programs to large and complex networks, you can in fact read Chapters 3 through 7 out of sequence or pick topics of greatest interest. Chapters 8 and 9 may be just right for the professional looking for non-technical controls to complement the technical ones of the earlier chapters. These chapters may also be important for the computer science student who wants to look beyond a narrow view of bytes and protocols. We recommend Chapters 10 and 11 for everyone, because those chapters deal with the human aspects of security: privacy, laws, and ethics. All computing is ultimately done to benefit humans, and so we present personal risks and approaches to computing. Chapter 12 is for people who want to understand some of the underlying mathematics and logic of cryptography.
What background should you have to appreciate this book? The only assumption is an understanding of programming and computer systems. Someone who is an advanced undergraduate or graduate student in computer science certainly has that background, as does a professional designer or developer of computer systems. A user who wants to understand more about how programs work can learn from this book, too; we provide the necessary background on concepts of operating systems or networks, for example, before we address the related security concerns.
This book can be used as a textbook in a one- or two-semester course in computer security. The book functions equally well as a reference for a computer professional or as a supplement to an intensive training course. And the index and extensive bibliography make it useful as a handbook to explain significant topics and point to key articles in the literature. The book has been used in classes throughout the world; instructors often design one-semester courses that focus on topics of particular interest to the students or that relate well to the rest of a curriculum.
What Is New In This Book?
This is the fourth edition of Security in Computing, first published in 1989. Since then, the specific threats, vulnerabilities, and controls have changed, even though many of the basic notions have remained the same.
The two changes most obvious to people familiar with the previous editions are the additions of two new chapters, on the economics of cybersecurity and privacy. These two areas are receiving more attention both in the computer security community and in the rest of the user population.
But this revision touched every existing chapter as well. The threats and vulnerabilities of computing systems have not stood still since the previous edition in 2003, and so we present new information on threats and controls of many types. Change include:
- the shift from individual hackers working for personal reasons to organized attacker groups working for financial gain
- programming flaws leading to security failures, highlighting man-in-the-middle, timing, and privilege escalation errors
- recent malicious code attacks, such as false interfaces and keystroke loggers
- approaches to code quality, including software engineering, testing, and liability approaches
- rootkits, including ones from unexpected sources
- web applications' threats and vulnerabilities
- privacy issues in data mining
- WiFi network security
- cryptanalytic attacks on popular algorithms, such as RSA, DES, and SHA, and recommendations for more secure use of these
- bots, botnets, and drones, making up networks of compromised systems
- update to the Advanced Encryption System (AES) with experience from its first several years of its use
- the divide between sound authentication approaches and users' actions
- biometric authentication capabilities and limitations
- the conflict between efficient production and use of digital content (e.g., music and videos) and control of piracy
In addition to these major changes, there are numerous small corrective and clarifying ones, ranging from wording and notational changes for pedagogic reasons to replacement, deletion, rearrangement, and expansion of sections.