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Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.
Red Clay, 1835: Cherokee Removal and the Meaning of Sovereignty

Red Clay, 1835: Cherokee Removal and the Meaning of Sovereignty

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A new way to learn history—by living it

A Norton original in the Reacting to the Past series, Red Clay, 1835: Cherokee Removal and the Meaning of Sovereignty envelops students in the treaty negotiations between the Cherokee National Council and representatives of the United States at Red Clay, Tennessee. As pressure mounts on the Cherokee to accept treaty terms, students must confront issues such as nationhood, westward expansion, and cultural change.

Reacting to the Past is an award-winning series of immersive role-playing games that actively engage students in their own learning. Students assume the roles of historical characters and practice critical thinking, primary source analysis, and argument, both written and spoken. Reacting games are flexible enough to be used across the curriculum, from first-year general education classes and discussion sections of lecture classes to capstone experiences and honors programs.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780393640915
Publisher: Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.
Publication date: 11/01/2017
Series: Reacting to the Past Series
Edition description: First Edition
Pages: 240
Sales rank: 311,040
Product dimensions: 6.90(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.60(d)

About the Author

Nicolas W. Proctor is professor of history at Simpson College. He received his Ph.D. in U.S. history from Emory University and is the author of Bathed in Blood: Hunting and Mastery in the Old South. He is also the chair of the Reacting to the Past editorial board, and the author of Reacting games on the Seven Years’ War on the Pennsylvania frontier, the Chicago Democratic Convention of 1968, Reconstruction in New Orleans, and the art of the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1889, as well as a handbook for Reacting game designers.

Margaret Storey is professor of history at DePaul University. She received her Ph.D. in U.S. history from Emory University and is the author of Loyalty and Loss: Alabama’s Unionists in the Civil War and Reconstruction, the editor of Tried Men and True: Or, Union Life in Dixie, and co-curator of the online exhibit The Civil War in Art: Teaching and Learning Through Chicago Collections.

Table of Contents

Part 1 Introduction 2

Brief Overview of the Game 3

Prologue: On the Road to Red Clay 4

Red Clay, Tennessee, October 1835 4

Prelude: The Hermitage 6

What Is Reacting to the Past 8

How to Play a Reacting Game 8

Game Setup 8

Game Play 9

Game Requirements 10

Skill Development 10

Part 2 Historical Background 12

Chronology 13

Nation to Nation: Cherokee and U.S. Relations 14

Cherokee Culture and the Land 23

How the World Was Made 24

Selu (Corn Mother) 25

The Removed Townhouses 26

Women in Cherokee Culture 28

Disputes, Crime, and Conflict Resolution 30

In the Historical Moment 31

Part 3 The Game 34

Major Issues for Debate 35

Rules and Procedures 37

Victory Objectives 37

Basic Outline of the Game 39

Context Sessions 39

Game Session 1 40

Game Session 2 40

Subsequent Game Sessions 41

Debriefing and Postmortem 41

Personal Agreements 41

Additional Objectives 41

Written Assignments 42

Scores 42

Grades 42

Counterfactuals 42

Part 4 Roles and Factions 44

Overview of Factions 45

The National Party (Ross Faction) 45

The Treaty Party (Ridge Faction) 46

White Faction 47

Indeterminates 47

Guests at the Hermitage Debate 49

Part 5 Core Texts 50

The Cherokee and the Policies of Civilization

John Ridge, Letter to Albert Gallatin, 1826 51

Elias Boudinot, An Address to the Whites, 1826 59

Assault on Indian Sovereignty

Georgia General Assembly, Georgia Indian Laws, 1829,1830 69

U.S. Congress, Indian Removal Act, 1830 74

The Cherokee Nation v. The State of Georgia, 1831 76

Samuel A. Worcester v. The State of Georgia, 1832 83

Elias Boudinot, Letter to Stand Watie, 1832 99

John Ridge, Letter to Stand Watie, 1832 101

Legal Commentaries

James Kent, Of the Foundation of Title to Land, 1828 103

Cherokee National Council, Memorial of the Cherokee Indians, 1830 106

Joseph Story, From Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, 1833 113

Alexis de Toqueville, From Democracy in America, 1835 115

The Debates About Indian Removal

Cherokee Women, Three Petitions, 1817, 1818, 1831 126

John Ross et al., Letter to John C. Calhoun, 1824 129

Elias Boudinot, Editorials in The Cherokee Phoenix, 1829, 1831 132

Lewis Cass, Removal of the Indians, 1830 138

Jeremiah Evarts [as William Penn], A Brief View of U.S-Indian Relations, 1829 148

Andrew Jackson, From First Annual Message to Congress, 1829 157

Theodore Frelinghuysen, Speech before the Senate, 1830 159

Wilson Lumpkin, Speech before Congress, 1830 170

Andrew Jackson, From Second Annual Message to Congress, 1830 178

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, Resolutions Concerning Indian Removal, 1830 181

George Troup, The Sovereignty of the States, 1832 189

Wilson Lumpkin, Message to Georgia General Assembly, 1832 191

Cherokee Indians [Treaty Party], Memorial of a Council Held at Running Waters, 1834 194

Elias Boudinot, Letter to Stand Watie, 1835 202

John Ridge, Letter to Major Ridge and Others, 1835 204

William H. Underwood and John Ridge, Letter to Lewis Cass, 1835 205

John Schermerhorn, Letter Regarding the Legitimacy of the Cherokee Government, 1835 206

Selected Bibliography 219

Pronunciation Key 220

Notes 221

Acknowledgments 223

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