REA's Total Solution for the GED® Test

REA's Total Solution for the GED® Test


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REA's Total Solution for the GED® Test - Your Path to Success on the GED®

Get Ready for the GED® with REA's GED® Total Solution

Book + Online features:
- Content 100% aligned with the 2014 GED® Test
- In-depth reviews for all four GED® test sections
- New question types -- samples of drag-and-drop, hot-spot, drop-down, and more
- Online diagnostic exams with instant feedback -- to focus your study
- Hundreds of practice questions and examples
- 2 full-length practice exams with detailed answer explanations

We know you'd like to get started with college and your career. That's why REA has developed this comprehensive guide to help you pass the GED® test. Created by a team of GED® experts, this all-inclusive product will help you get one step closer to your GED® diploma.

Four online diagnostic tests--one for each test section, are your first steps to passing the GED® test. Your online score reports pinpoint where you're strongest and where you need to focus your study to help improve your score.

Comprehensive review covers all 4 GED® test sections--Reasoning Through Language Arts, Mathematical Reasoning, Science, and Social Studies. Plus, our math expert helps you get acquainted with the GED® test's on-screen calculator.

Proven study plan--REA's focused content and practical advice have helped millions succeed on their exams. With our step-by-step plan, you can pass the GED® test and be on your way to academic and professional advancements.

Two full-length practice tests (1 in the book, 1 PDF download)--balanced to include every type of question you can expect on the actual GED® test. Plus, each test provides practice for the new question types, including drag-and-drop, hot-spot, and more.

If you're taking the 2014 GED® test, REA has your Total Solution!

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780738611358
Publisher: Research & Education Association
Publication date: 09/20/2013
Series: GED® & TABE Test Preparation
Pages: 800
Sales rank: 852,268
Product dimensions: 8.40(w) x 10.90(h) x 1.50(d)
Age Range: 16 Years

About the Author

Reasoning Through Language Arts: Stacey Kiggins, M.S.
Stacey Kiggins is the English Department Chair at Thomas A. Edison High School in Fairfax County, Virginia, where she teaches IB Higher Level English and Speech and Debate. She received her B.A. in English Education from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and her M.S. in Initiatives in Educational Transformation from George Mason University. Ms. Kiggins was the 2010 Virginia Association of Communication Arts and Sciences Speech Teacher of the Year and the 2011 National Communication Association’s National Speech Teacher of the Year.

Mathematical Reasoning: Stephen A. Reiss, M.B.A.
Stephen Reiss is the founder and owner of The Math Magician, a leading San Diego-based provider of supplementary mathematics instruction. His company specializes in seminar and private instruction, preparing students for a wide range of standardized tests including the GED® test. He earned his B.A. from Clark University and his M.B.A. from Arizona State University.

Science: Laurie A. Callihan, Ph.D.
Dr. Laurie Callihan is currently a Research Implementation and Curriculum Specialist at NYU Steinhardt Department of Teaching and Learning. She has taught Integrated Science at DeSoto Middle School, Arcadia, Florida, where she served as Science Department Head and Middle School Science Curriculum Coordinator. As such, she developed and presented professional development courses, mentored teachers, developed curriculum, and led changes to reform science teaching practices. At Florida State University in Tallahassee, Florida, Dr. Callihan supervised intern teachers of middle school science.

Social Studies: Lisa Gail Mullins, M.A.
Lisa Gail Mullins is an adult education teacher in the Hawkins County Schools, Rogersville, Tennessee, where she teaches all areas of the GED® test, as well as all areas of English as a Second Language and adult basic education and literacy. Ms. Mullins is also an adjunct professor at Walters State Community College, Morristown, Tennessee. She has logged a great many professional development hours with the Tennessee Adult Education Program. Ms. Mullins is a member of the Tennessee Association of Adult and Community Education, the Commission of Adult Basic Education, the Association of Adult Literacy Professional Development, the Adult Education National Credential Advisory Panel, and the Tennessee Adult Education ESOL Transition Task Force. She earned her B.S. and M.A. at East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee.

Read an Excerpt

Welcome to REA’s Total Solution for the GED® Test, your key to passing the 2014 GED® test. Choosing REA as your study partner puts you on a path to join the millions of people who have benefited from the educational and career advantages offered by earning one of America’s most recognized credentials.

Since its launch in1942, more than 20 million adults have earned their GED® high school credential. You may have heard of some of them — actors Nicholas Cage, Christina Applegate, and Kelly McGillis, rock musician David Bowie, former professional boxer Oscar De La Hoya, the late ABC News correspondent Peter Jennings, Olympic gold medalist Mary Lou Retton, former Delaware Governor Ruth Ann Minner, and rap artists 50 Cent and Eminem.

The GED® test has changed with the times. The test is no longer meant to be viewed as an end in itself but rather a springboard for adults looking to move on to college, learn a trade, or land a better-paying job. There’s no doubt about it: the GED® high school credential is a major door opener. In fact, more than 98% of colleges and 96% of employers accept the GED® credential in place of a high school diploma.

About This Book + Online Tests
Because the 2014 GED® test is dramatically different from its predecessor (known as the 2002 Series), we built our test prep from the ground up. This means our content thoroughly reflects the 2014 GED® Assessment Targets, which span four test sections: Reasoning Through Language Arts, Mathematical Reasoning, Science, and Social Studies. REA even hired an independent team of correlations experts to verify our alignment with the new test.

This book, along with the valuable tools at the online REA Study Center, provides you with everything you need to master the GED® test content. Our GED® test prep package includes:

- Detailed coverage of how the new GED® test works
- 4 online diagnostic tests (1 for each test section)
- Targeted review for all test sections
- 2 full-length practice tests (1 test in the book and another test offered as a downloadable PDF)

We know your time is valuable and you want an efficient study experience. At the online REA Study Center, you’ll get feedback right from the start on what you know and what you don’t know. Armed with this information, you can focus your study time on the topics where you need the most help.

Here’s what you’ll find at the online REA Study Center:

4 Diagnostic Exams (1 for each test section)
— Our online diagnostic exams will identify your knowledge gaps in each of the test sections. The diagnostic exams are scored automatically and pinpoint the topics where you need the most review. Detailed answer explanations for each question show you why the correct answer is right, and explain why the other answer choices are incorrect.

Full-Length Practice Exam— Just like our in-book full-length practice test, this full-length exam in PDF format reflects the new question types and is a great way to evaluate what you’ve learned.

To access all these exams and for valuable test information, offers, and updates,

What’s on the GED® Test?
New Item Types

The new GED® test is entirely computer-based. Because the test is given on computer, test administrators have added new interactive questions, or as they’re known in testing circles, item types. Learning how these seven item types function is central to understanding the GED® test as a whole:

- Drag-and-drop
- Hot spot
- Fill-in-the-blank
- Drop-down
- Multiple-choice
- Short answer
- Extended response

It’s also important to know that, according to the best information available from test officials, approximately half of the questions on the test will still be in classic multiple-choice format and will have four answers, lettered (A) through (D), from which you will need to choose the best answer.

Not sure what a drag-and-drop question looks like? Don’t worry. We’ve included samples of the new question types to familiarize you with what you can expect to see on test day.

Drag-and-Drop: Drag-and-drop questions allow you to answer questions by moving objects around on the screen. You “drag” the object or icon where you want it and “drop” it into place.

Hot Spot Item: To answer this type of question, you will have to move your computer cursor to a specific “hot spot” on a graphic.

Fill-in-the-blank: This type of question asks you to fill in a single blank space (or in some cases, a few blank spaces). You’ll use the keyboard to type in your answers.

Drop-down Item: Choose your answer from a drop-down menu embedded in the text.

Short Answer & Extended Response Boxes: You will see this screen when you write short-answer items (for the Science section) or for longer extended-response items in the Reasoning Through Language Arts and Social Studies tests.

You can view more examples of the types of questions at

Now that you know the types of questions you’ll see on the GED® test, let’s learn more about each test section.

The Reasoning Through Language Arts (RLA) Test
The Reasoning Through Language Arts Test focuses on your ability to read closely, write clearly, and edit and understand the use of standard written English in context.

The RLA test is split into two sections covering reading and writing. The reading section includes texts reflecting a variety of subjects and complexity levels. Each text will be approximately 450 to 900 words. You will have 95 minutes to answer the questions on the reading comprehension section. After a 10-minute break, you will take the writing portion of the test.

The writing portion of the RLA test integrates reading and writing skills. You will be given 45 minutes to write a 250-word essay on the topic listed in your test booklet. You are expected to follow all of the rules for sentence structure, usage, and mechanics in writing your essay. Your essay will be graded on several factors, including:

- how well you addressed and answered the question
- how well you organized and developed your essay
- if you provided details and examples to support your main idea
- how well you followed the rules for standard written English
- how varied and appropriate your word choices are

The Mathematical Reasoning Test
The Mathematical Reasoning Test focuses on quantitative problem solving and algebraic problem solving. You will have 90 minutes to answer 50 questions. On the day of the test, you are provided with an on-screen calculator (the Texas Instruments TI-30XS MultiView™ scientific calculator) for use on most of the items on the 2014 GED® Mathematics test. For more information about the calculator, visit:

The Science Test
The Science Test focuses on science reasoning and three major domains:
- Life science (45% of questions)
- Physical science (35% of questions)
- Earth and space science (20% of questions)

The test is 90 minutes in length and features charts, figures, graphs, and information from which to answer the questions. Approximately half of the test is composed of problem-solving questions, and the other half presents conceptual-understanding questions.

The Social Studies Test
The Social Studies Test focuses on the fundamentals of social studies reasoning and covers four major domains:

- Civics and government
- United States history
- Economics
- Geography and the world

The test is made up of two sections and is 90 minutes in length. The first section, which includes most of the questions, is 65 minutes long. The second section, featuring extended-response questions, will last for 25 minutes. There also will be an additional 15 minutes’ worth of field-test items; they won’t affect your score, but then again, you won’t be able to tell the field-test items apart from the scorable questions. So don’t concern yourself with them.

Timing and the GED® Test
The GED® test is given in a computerized, timed format. You will have about seven and one-quarter hours to complete the full exam, but don’t worry, you don’t have to take the entire test in one day. Actually, most GED® test candidates don’t take the whole test in one sitting!

Timing is everything, so it’s crucial that you budget your time wisely. No matter what section of the test you’re taking, you need to answer all the questions before time is up. Better yet, you should try to finish with time to spare so you can return to questions you weren’t sure of or guessed on.

In fact, the GED® test is set up to help you do just that. The test’s review feature allows you to flag questions so you can go back to them later. At the end of the test, the computer will show you which questions you flagged or didn’t answer. Be sure to answer each question — even if you have to guess — because there is no penalty for guessing. If you work slowly or usually run out of time on tests, then you should practice your pacing.

What Score Do I Need to Pass the GED® Test?
The passing standard on each test section (or module) is 150 on a scaled score of 100 to 200. Therefore, you will need to score at least 150 on each section (for a total score of 600 across the battery of four tests) in order to receive your GED® test credential.

You will receive your scores the same day you take your test. Beginning with the 2014 exam, GED® test-takers will receive one of two possible scores:

- GED® Score: tells you whether you scored at or higher than the minimum needed to demonstrate high school equivalency-level skills and abilities

- GED® Score with Honors: tells you whether you scored at or higher than the minimum needed to demonstrate career- and college-readiness.

Your transcript will contain standard scores and percentile ranks. The standard scores let you compare scores across tests and test forms. The percentile rank lets you compare your performance on each one of the tests with the performance of graduating high school seniors. The higher the percentile rank, the better your performance. For more details about scoring on the 2014 GED® test, visit:

When Should the GED® Test Be Taken?
If you’re currently enrolled in an adult education course, your teacher or advisor will give you feedback on when he or she thinks you’re ready to take the test. If you’re studying on your own, one of the best things you can do to get the ball rolling is to take a practice test and go from there (see our suggested study schedule on page xxxi). When you feel confident about your abilities and are ready to take the actual exam, go for it! Given the very nature of the GED® test, there’s really no “best” time to take it.

When and Where is the Test Given?
The GED® test is administered on computer in English and Spanish at approximately 3,400 Official Testing Centers in the United States, Canada, and their territories.

For more information on upcoming administrations of the 2014 GED® test, contact your local high school, adult education center, community college, or the GED Testing Service® at: 1-800-62-MY GED (1-800-626-9433) or visit You can also locate a testing center near you by visiting: (search “testing centers”).

How Do I Register for the Test and Is There a Registration Fee?
All registration for the 2014 GED® test is conducted online. You will have to register for the GED® test and pay a registration fee online. At the time of registration you will create an account and schedule your test.

For the most up-to-date information on registration, fees, and to view a tutorial about the registration process, visit You may also call Pearson VUE at 1-877-EXAMGED or 1-877-392-6433, Monday through Friday, 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. CST with questions.

Can I Retake the Test?
Absolutely! If you don’t do well on one section of the GED® test, don’t panic! You can take it again, and in fact many candidates do. You don’t have to retake the whole test in one sitting, and once you’ve passed a section of the test, you don’t have to take it again.

Accommodations for Test-Takers with Disabilities
If you have special needs because of a physical or learning disability, accommodations may be available for you. Testing accommodations (such as an audio version of the test, extra testing time, or a separate testing room) will be made for test-takers with documented disabilities. For more information on testing accommodations, visit If you have questions, email:

Setting Up Your Study Plan
When Should I Start Studying?

Many people take the GED® test one test section at a time. Which test you take first is entirely up to you. Maybe you want to take the tests you feel more comfortable with first, or you might decide to tackle the “harder” tests to get them out of the way. Whatever you decide, it’s never too early to start studying. The earlier you begin, the more time you will have to sharpen your skills.

Official GED® Practice Tests
If you want even more practice before test day, the GED Testing Service® provides free sample tests (not full-length) with limited functionality (go to to find them). In addition, starting in November 2013, the official GED® practice test, called GED Ready™, will be available for a nominal fee (go to, and be sure you get the 2014 version).

The GED Testing Service® also provides a free computer skills tutorial that you can take prior to the actual testing appointment. Go to and search for “computer tutorials.”

Table of Contents

About Our Authors
About Research & Education Association


About This Book + Online Tests
What’s on the GED® Test?
The Reasoning Through Language Arts (RLA) Test
The Mathematical Reasoning Test
The Science Test
The Social Studies Test
Timing and the GED® Test
What Score Do I Need to Pass the GED® Test?
When Should the GED® Test Be Taken?
When and Where is the Test Given?
How Do I Register for the Test and Is There a Registration Fee?
Can I Retake the Test?
Accommodations for Test-Takers with Disabilities
Setting Up Your Study Plan
Official GED® Practice Tests
Test-Taking Tips
Before the Test
The Day of the Test
After the Test

Diagnostic Test for Reasoning Through Language Arts

Chapter 1: A Guide to the GED® Test’s Reasoning Through Language Arts Section

The Ability to Read Closely
Central Ideas and Supporting Ideas
Explicit Details and Main Ideas in a Text
Summary of Details and Ideas in Text
Inferences about Details that Support Main Ideas
Implied Ideas in Paragraphs or Whole Texts
Identify a Theme in a Text
Make Evidence-Based Generalizations
Synthesis of Multiple Main Ideas in Text

Chapter 2: Interpreting Text
How Individuals, Events, and Ideas Develop and Interact
Order Sequences of Events in Text
Plot/Sequence of Events, Characters, Settings, or Ideas in Texts
Analyze Relationships within Texts
Relationships between Ideas in a Text
Role of Details in Complex or Informational Texts

Chapter 3: Interpreting Words and Phrases

Words in Context – Cognitive and Figurative Meanings
Determine Meaning of Words and Phrases in a Text
How Meaning or Tone is Affected by the Replacement of One Word
Impact of Specific Words—Focus on Author’s Intent

Chapter 4: Analyzing the Structure of Texts

Relationship of Specific Sentences or Paragraphs and the Whole
Contribution of Sentence, Paragraph, Chapter to Development of Ideas
Structural Relationship between Adjacent Sections of a Text
Transitional Language or Signal Words
How Structure Shapes Meaning and Supports Author’s Purpose

Chapter 5: Author’s Purpose
Author’s Point of View Shapes Content and Style
Author’s Point of View or Purpose
How Author Distinguishes Her/His Position
Author’s Implicit and Explicit Purposes
Rhetorical Techniques to Advance Point of View

Chapter 6: Evaluate the Argument and Claims

Argument and Specific Claims in a Text
Specific Steps of Author’s Argument
Evidence Used to Support Claims or Conclusions
Relevance and Sufficiency of Evidence
Claims Supported by Reasons and Evidence — or Not
Valid Reasoning vs. Fallacious Reasoning
Underlying Premise and Logical Support and Evidence

Chapter 7: Analyze Similar Themes or Topics

How Two or More Texts Address Similar Topics
Specific Comparisons between Two Texts
Similarities and/or Differences of Two Similar Passages
Two Argumentative Passages on Same Topic
How Data Supports an Author’s Argument
Two Passages in Different Genres or Formats to Evaluate Differences
Two Passages in Different Genres or Formats to Synthesize Information

Chapter 8: The Writing Standards (Part I)

The Ability to Write Clearly
The Conventions of Standard English Grammar and Usage
Errors Involving Confused Words, Homonyms, and Contractions
Subject-Verb Agreement
Pronoun Usage
Non-Standard or Informal Usage
Dangling or Misplaced Modifiers
Parallelism and Subordination and Coordination
Wordiness or Awkward Sentence Construction

Chapter 9: The Writing Standards (Part II)

Conventions of Standard English Capitalization and Punctuation
Correct Use of Capitalization
Run-On Sentences, Fused Sentences, or Sentence Fragments
Use of Apostrophes with Possessive Nouns
Correct Use of Punctuation

Chapter 10: Written English in Context

Use of Standard Written English in Context
Details, Logical Inferences, Valid Claims with Texual Evidence
Analytic Response
Sufficient Command of Standard English Conventions

Diagnostic Test for Mathematical Reasoning

Chapter 1: Operations with Real Numbers

The Real Number System
Operations with Real Numbers
Signed Numbers
Absolute Value
Order of Operations
Scientific Notation
Practice Questions

Chapter 2: Fractions, Percents, and Decimals

Operations with Fractions
Comparing Fractions and Decimals
Simple Interest Problems
Practice Questions

Chapter 3: Algebraic Expressions and Equations

Terms and Expressions
Order of Operations
Expressions with Like Terms
Expressions with Undefined Terms
Multi-Step Equations
Equations with Multiple Variables
Solving a System of Equations
Using Equations in Word Problems
Square Roots and Cube Roots
Simplifying Square Roots
Multiplying and Dividing Square Roots
Cube Roots
Equations with Exponents and Square Roots
Mixed Practice
Quadratic Expressions and Equations
Factoring Quadratic Expressions
Quadratic Equations
The Quadratic Formula
Practice Questions

Chapter 4: Ratios and Proportions
Definition of a Ratio
Applications of Ratios
Applications of Proportions
Percents as Proportions
Practice Questions

Chapter 5: Linear Equations and the Coordinate Plane

Functional Notation
The Coordinate Plane
Slopes of Lines
The Slope-Intercept Form of a Line
Deriving the Equation of a Line
The Point-Slope Form of a Line
Linear Inequalities
Graphing Linear Inequalities
Parallel and Perpendicular Lines
Applications of Linear Models
Quadratic Functions
Graphing Quadratic Functions
Practice Questions

Chapter 6: Measurement and Geometric Figures

Units of Measure
The U.S. System
The Metric System
Geometry: Points, Lines, and Planes
The Distance Formula
The Midpoint Formula
Special Angle Pairs
Parallel Lines
Angle-Side Relationship
Exterior Angles
The Pythagorean Theorem
Arcs of a Circle
Practice Questions

Chapter 7: Area, Surface Area, and Volume

Surface Area
Practice Questions

Chapter 8: Statistics and Data Analysis

Measure of Central Tendency
The Mean
The Median
The Mode
The Range
Data Analysis
The Counting Principle
Combinations and Permutations
Practice Questions

Diagnostic Test for Science

Chapter 1: Life Science

Human Body and Health
Body Systems and How They Work Together
Homeostasis and Effects of Change
Sources of Nutrients
Disease and Pathogens: Transmission, Effects, and Prevention
Relationships between Life Functions and Energy Intake
Energy for Life Functions
Conservation of and Sources of Energy in Ecosystems
Flow of Matter in Ecosystems
Carrying Capacity
Disruption of Ecosystems and Extinction
Organization of Life
Essential Functions of Life and Cellular Components
Cell Theory, Specialized Cells and Tissues, Levels of Organization
Mitosis and Meiosis
Molecular Basis for Heredity
Molecular Biology, Inheritance, and Chromosomes
Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Traits
New Alleles; Environmental Altering of Traits
Common Ancestry and Cladograms
Selection and Requirements for Selection
Adaptation, Selection Pressure, and Speciation
Practice Questions

Chapter 2: Physical Science
Conservation, Transformation, and Flow of Energy
Heat, Temperature, Flow of Heat
Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
Types of Energy and Transformations between Types of Energy
Sources of Energy and Relationships between Different Sources
Types of Waves, Electromagnetic Radiation, Uses and Dangers
Work, Motion, and Forces
Speed, Velocity, Acceleration, and Collisions
Force, Newton’s Law, Gravity, Acceleration, Mass and Weight
Work, Simple Machines, Mechanical Advantages, and Power
Chemical Properties and Reactions Related to Living Systems
Structure of Matter
Physical and Chemical Properties, Changes of State, and Density
Balancing Chemical Equations, Conservation of Mass
Practice Questions

Chapter 3: Earth and Space Science
Interactions between Earth’s Systems and Living Things
Interaction of Matter between Living and Non-Living Things and the
Location, Uses, and Dangers of Fossil Fuels
Natural Hazards: Their Effects and Mitigation
Extraction and Use of Natural Resources, Renewable vs. Non-Renewable
Earth and Its System Components and Interactions
Characteristics of the Atmosphere
Characteristics of the Oceans
Interactions between Earth’s Systems
Interior Structure of the Earth
Structures and Organization of the Cosmos
Sun, Planets, Moons, Earth’s Motion, and Interactions within the Solar System
The Age of the Earth
Practice Questions

Chapter 4: Science Practices

Comprehending Scientific Presentations
Understand and Explain Scientific Presentations
Determine the Meaning of Symbols, Terms, and Phrases in Scientific Presentations
Investigation Design (Experimental and Observational)
Reasoning from Data
Evaluating Conclusions with Evidence
Working with Findings
Expressing Scientific Information
Practice Questions


Diagnostic Test for Social Studies

Chapter 1: Civics and Government
Definition of Government
Eight Parts of the Constitution
Bill of Rights
Amendments to the U.S. Constitution
Executive Branch of the U.S. Government
Electoral College
Practice Questions

Chapter 2: United States History

Building Vocabulary Skills
Landmark Documents
Strategies to Understand Historical Documents
New Deal
Significance of Wars
Major Movements in the United States
Identifying Sources
Facts and Opinions
Recognizing Bias
Point of View and Frame of Reference
Extended-Response Questions
Identifying the Historical Sequence
Strategy for Analysis of Documents
Practice Questions

Chapter 3: Economics
What is Economics?
Graphs, Charts, and Tables
Types of Economic Systems
Personal Finances and Banking
Average Budget for a Typical American Home
Supply and Demand
Global Economy
Main Idea and Details to Support Conclusions
Predicting an Outcome
Practice Questions

Chapter 4: Geography and the World

The Five Themes of Geography
Environmental Issues
Practice Questions

Practice Tests
Reasoning Through Language Arts Test 1
Answer Explanations
Reasoning Through Language Arts Test 2
Mathematical Reasoning Test 1
Answer Explanations
Mathematical Reasoning Test 2
Science Test 1
Answer Explanations
Science Test 2
Social Studies Test 1
Answer Explanations
Social Studies Test 2


GED® Assessment Targets for Practice Tests


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