This book describes techniques used to predict the quality of images formed by optical systems, such as telescopes, camera lenses, and microscope objectives. It covers in detail how the ray and wave pictures of lens behavior can be combined and developed to produce a theory capable of dealing with the large angles encountered in real optical systems. Several applications are considered, including the propagation of a Gaussian beam along a skew ray, a clear and convincing demonstration that diffractive optical elements are subject to the same fundamental limitation as conventional lenses, a thorough discussion of the "cosine-to-the-fourth law," and a detailed example of mock ray tracing. Containing many practical insights, as well as exercises and solutions, this book will be of great interest to graduate students taking courses in this field, and to anyone working in optical design and engineering.
Table of Contents
Preface; Part I. Preview: 1. Some consequences of the wave equation; Part II. Geometrical Optics: 2. Fermat's principle; 3. Path differentials; 4. The structure of image forming pencils; 5. Eikonal transformations; 6. Perfect images; 7. Aberrations; 8. Radiometry; Part III. Paraxial Optics: 9. The small angle approximation; 10. Paraxial calculations; 11. Stops and pupils; 12. Chromatic aberrations; Part IV. Waves in Homogeneous Media: 13. Waves; 14. Wave propagation I: exact results; 15. Wave propagation II: approximations; 16. The stationary phase approximation; Part V. Wave Propagation Through Lenses: 17. Toward a wave theory of lenses; 18. General propagation kernels; 19. Paraxial wave propagation; 20. The wave theory of image formation; 21. Fourier optics; Part VI. Aberrations: 22. Perfect systems; 23. The vicinity of an arbitrary ray; 24. Third order aberrations; 25. The small field approximation; 26. Ray tracing; 27. Aberrations and the wave theory; Part VII. Applications: 28. Gaussian beams; 29. Concentric systems; 30. Thin lenses; 31. Mock ray tracing; 32. Diffractive optical elements; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.