This book concerns the various ways that primates respond to environmental change. By studying these patterns of responsiveness we not only gain useful knowledge about the structural, physiological and behavioural propensities of different species, but also acquire important information relating to issues of contemporary concern, such as conservation and the management of animals in the wild as well as in various forms of captivity. For example, there is growing concern among biologists and conser vationists about the influence of habitat destruction, such as logging, on the fitness and survival of wild primates. There is also increased awareness of the need to improve the care of primates in zoos and laboratories, including the enrichment of captive environments. Further, because an increasing number of primate species are becom ing endangered, knowledge of their responsiveness to new environ ments is an essential requirement for effective breeding programmes in captivity, and for the translocation and rehabilitation of species in the wild. In theory, studies of many closely related species are required in order to consider relevant evolutionary processes, as well as to develop functional hypotheses about the adaptive significance of various biological propensities and their interrelationships in the short and longer terms.
|Edition description:||Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1991|
|Product dimensions:||6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.04(d)|
Table of ContentsOne General Perspectives.- 1 Species differences in tolerance to environmental change.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Special senses.- 1.3 Locomotion and posture.- 1.4 Feeding: gape, teeth and jaws.- 1.5 Feeding: gastrointestinal tracts.- 1.6 Primates: diets and change.- 1.7 Concluding remarks.- 2 Adaptations to environmental change: an evolutionary perspective.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Sources of variation.- 2.3 Social flux in chimpanzees.- 2.4 Innovation, tradition and ‘culture’.- 2.5 Life history variables.- 2.6 Invasions and radiations.- 2.7 Behavioural flexibility and evolutionary failure.- 2.8 Concluding remarks.- 3 Responsiveness to environmental change: interrelationships among parameters.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Cognitive capacities.- 3.3 Temperament and response styles.- 3.4 Physiological indices additional considerations.- 3.5 Social context.- 3.6 Individual differences.- 3.7 Concluding remarks.- 4 The social control of fertility.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Physiological studies of female reproductive suppression.- 4.3 Is there a common physiological cause of reproductive suppression?.- 4.4 Field studies of female reproductive suppression.- 4.5 Ovarian/menstrual synchrony and implications for humans.- 4.6 Concluding remarks.- 5 Individual variation in responsiveness to environmental change.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Interspecific and intraspecific variation in behaviour: theoretical expectations.- 5.3 Responsiveness to change as an axis of individual variation.- 5.4 Functional hypotheses for individual variation in response to change.- 5.5 Effects of captivity on variation in responses to change.- 5.6 Concluding remarks.- Two Environmental Change in Nature.- 6 Forest disturbance and Amazonian primates.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 The study area.- 6.3 Study methods.- 6.4 The primate community.- 6.5 Use of different habitats.- 6.6 Food availability and selection.- 6.7 Discussion.- 6.8 Concluding remarks.- 7 Provisioning of Barbary macaques on the Rock of Gibraltar.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Provisioning.- 7.3 Gibraltar Barbary macaques: 72 years of provisioning.- 7.4 Provisioning levels.- 7.5 The influence of provisioning.- 7.6 Provisioning, supplemental food and demography.- 7.7 Wild and Gibraltar macaques compared.- 7.8 Concluding remarks.- 8 Nonhuman primates as pests.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 A study of primate pest problems.- 8.3 Discussion.- 8.4 Concluding remarks.- 9 Rehabilitation of captive chimpanzees.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Previous rehabilitation projects.- 9.3 A rehabilitation project in Liberia.- 9.4 Natural adaptive behaviour of the rehabilitated chimpanzees.- 9.5 Other changes in behaviour in the new environment.- 9.6 Initial losses from the rehabilitated group.- 9.7 A comparison of ‘failures’ and ‘successes’.- 9.8 Concluding remarks.- 10 Responses of wild chimpanzees and gorillas to the arrival of primatologists: behaviour observed during habituation.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Study methods.- 10.3 Results.- 10.4 Discussion.- 10.5 Concluding remarks.- 11 Primate conservation and wildlife management.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Threats to primate diversity.- 11.3 Action needed to help endangered species.- 11.4 Primate studies and conservation.- 11.5 Advantages of peaceful coexistence with wild primates.- 11.6 Concluding remarks.- Three: Environmental Change in Captivity.- 12 Stimulation of natural patterns of behaviour: studies with golden lion tamarins and gorillas.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Management and husbandry of golden lion tamarins at the Jersey Zoo.- 12.3 Management and husbandry of lowland gorillas.- 12.4 Concluding remarks.- 13 Environmental challenges in groups of capuchins.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Behaviour in nature and behaviour towards objects in captivity.- 13.3 Presenting objects in a captive environment.- 13.4 Studies in our own laboratory.- 13.5 Baseline data.- 13.6 The introduction of a sequential puzzle.- 13.7 Presentation of a tool-using task.- 13.8 Concluding remarks.- 14 Environmental enrichment for single housed common marmosets.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Conditions of housing.- 14.3 Access to social stimuli.- 14.4 Foraging tasks.- 14.5 Other examples of enrichment.- 14.6 Concluding remarks.- 15 Responses to novel social stimuli in callitrichid monkeys: a comparative perspective.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Social biology of tamarins and marmosets.- 15.3 Responses to unfamiliar intruders experimental studies.- 15.4 Accounting for species differences in responses to intruders.- 15.5 Concluding remarks.- 16 Reproductive consequences of changing social status in female common marmosets.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 The establishment of social status.- 16.3 Monitoring ovarian function.- 16.4 Removal of the dominant female.- 16.5 The dominant female deposed.- 16.6 Subordinate females removed and housed individually.- 16.7 Dominant females with subordinate status in their previous group.- 16.8 Ovulating females as subordinates in a new group.- 16.9 A dominant female as a subordinate in a new group.- 16.10 Discussion.- 16.11 Concluding remarks.- 17 Behavioural and physiological indices of social relationships: comparative studies of New World monkeys.- 17.1 Introduction.- 17.2 Activity, reactivity and regulation of stress-response systems.- 17.3 Sociophysiological responsiveness.- 17.4 Sociophysiology of interindividual relationships.- 17.5 Concluding remarks.- 18 Stress and distress in response to change.- 18.1 Introduction.- 18.2 Stress responses.- 18.3 Feedback control of the hormonal response to stress.- 18.4 Neural mediation of the stress response.- 18.5 Nonsocial stressors.- 18.6 Individual differences in the stress response.- 18.7 Control of environmental change.- 18.8 Social stressors.- 18.9 Distress.- 18.10 Concluding remarks.- 19 Criteria for the provision of captive environments.- 19.1 Introduction.- 19.2 Needs of the keepers.- 19.3 Needs of the animal.- 19.4 Objective assessments of welfare.- 19.5 Animal welfare guidelines.- 19.6 The physical environment.- 19.7 Providing variability in the physical environment.- 19.8 The social environment.- 19.9 Reproduction in captivity.- 19.10 Concluding remarks.- Postscript.- References.