ISBN-10:
1786346109
ISBN-13:
9781786346100
Pub. Date:
01/10/2019
Publisher:
World Scientific Publishing Europe Ltd
Optical Spectroscopy: Fundamentals And Advanced Applications

Optical Spectroscopy: Fundamentals And Advanced Applications

Current price is , Original price is $98.0. You

Temporarily Out of Stock Online

Please check back later for updated availability.

Overview

Developments in optical spectroscopy have taken new directions in recent decades, with the focus shifting from understanding small gas phase molecules towards applications in materials and biological systems. This is due to significant interest in these topics, which has been facilitated by significant technological developments.Absorption, luminescence and excited state energy transfer properties have become of crucial importance on a large scale in materials related to light-harvesting in organic and inorganic third generation solar cells, for solar water splitting, and in light emitting diodes, TV screens and many other applications. In addition, Förster resonance energy transfer can be used as a ruler for the characterisation of the structure and dynamics of DNA, proteins and other biomolecules via labelling with fluorescing markers.This advanced textbook covers a range of these applications as well as the basics of absorption, emission and energy transfer of molecular systems in the condensed phase, in addition to the corresponding behaviour of metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots. Technical experimental requirements, aspects to avoid interfering perturbations and methods of quantitative data analysis make this book accessible and ideal for students and researchers in physical chemistry, biophysics and nanomaterials.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781786346100
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Europe Ltd
Publication date: 01/10/2019
Pages: 268
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.63(d)

Table of Contents

Preface v

About the Authors vii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

References 4

Chapter 2 Fundamentals 7

2.1 The Nature of Light 7

2.2 Absorption and Emission 12

2.3 The Lambert-Beer Law and Its Limitations 15

2.4 Transition Moment and Selection Rules 18

2.4.1 The transition dipole moment 18

2.4.2 Selection rules due to orbital symmetry 19

2.4.3 Selection rules due to spin functions 21

2.4.4 Raman spectroscopy 22

2.4.5 The orientation of the transition dipole moment 22

2.4.6 The case of benzene 25

2.4.7 The case of naphthalene 28

2.4.8 Excitons 29

2.5 Oscillator Strength 33

2.6 The Jablonski Diagram of Molecular Chromophores 34

2.7 The Franck-Condon Principle 40

2.8 Solvatochromic Effects 43

2.9 Determination of Quantum Yields and Lifetimes 46

2.10 Defects in Diamond: A Model Solid 48

2.11 Band Structure and Optical Processes in Semiconductor Quantum Dots 53

2.12 Plasmon Resonances of Metallic Nanoparticles and Surfaces 56

2.13 Key Points 60

General Reading 62

References 62

Chapter 3 Aspects of Experimental Setup and Data Analysis 65

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 Steady-state Absorption Spectroscopy 66

3.2.1 Light source 67

3.2.2 Wavelength selector 68

3.2.3 Sample chamber 71

3.2.4 Light detector 73

3.2.5 Spectrometer 74

3.3 Steady-state Fluorescence Spectroscopy 74

3.3.1 Experimental setup 75

3.3.2 Sources of error 79

3.3.3 Correction of fluorescence spectra 81

3.4 Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy (DR5) 84

3.5 Time-resolved Spectroscopy 88

3.5.1 Introduction and equipment 88

3.5.2 Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy 91

Intensified CCD camera 91

Streak camera 92

Fluorescence upconversion 94

3.5.3 Fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetime measurements 94

Pulse fluorometry (time-correlated single photon counting, TCSPC) 95

Phase fluorometry 100

3.5.4 Time-resolved absorption spectroscopy 103

3.6 Polarisation-dependent Spectroscopy 108

3.7 Data Analysis Methods 111

3.7.1 Introduction 111

3.7.2 Goodness of fit 111

3.7.3 Regression with an assumed function 113

Least-squares analysis 113

Maximum likelihood estimation 116

Global analysis 116

Deconvolution 117

Fitting of fluorescence spectra 118

3.7.4 Regression based on probabilistic approaches 120

Principal component analysis (PCA) 121

Principal component regression 125

Maximum entropy method (MEM) 125

Partial least-squares regression (PLS) 126

3.8 Key Points 126

General Reading 129

References 130

Chapter 4 Principles of Optical Spectroscopy Demonstrated for a Set of Rigid Merocyanine Dyes 133

4.1 Concept 133

4.2 Absorption Properties 134

4.3 Solvatochromic Absorption Properties 137

4.4 Electronic Structure 138

4.5 Fluorescence Spectra 141

4.6 Fluorescence Quantum Yield 144

4.7 Orientation-dependent Absorption 145

4.8 Key Points 146

References 146

Chapter 5 Absorption and Luminescence of Semiconductor Quantum Dots 149

5.1 Introduction 149

5.2 Synthesis of Semiconductor Quantum Dots 150

5.2.1 Core quantum dots 151

5.2.2 Core/shell quantum dots 153

5.2.3 Surface capping agents 154

5.3 Fluorescence Properties of Quantum Dots 155

5.3.1 Effect of quantum dot size 156

5.3.2 Effect of semiconductor material 156

5.3.3 Photoluminescence quantum yield of quantum dots 160

5.4 Key Points 161

General Reading 162

References 162

Chapter 6 Energy Transfer Processes of Excited States 165

5.1 Types of Energy Transfer 165

6.1 Dexter Energy Transfer, Contact Quenching or Sensitisation 166

6.2 Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) 167

6.3 Excitonic Energy Relaxation 172

6.4 Stem-Volmer Kinetics and Competition Between Deactivation Channels 173

6.6 Key Points 176

General Reading 177

References 177

Chapter 7 Advanced Applications of Optical Spectroscopy 179

7.1 Single-molecule Spectroscopy 179

7.1.1 Motivation 179

7.1.2 Principles and crucial requirements of the experiment 180

7.1.3 Intermitting fluorescence activity (blinking) 183

7.1.4 Instructive examples of applications 188

7.2 Labelling in Biology 191

7.3 Environmental Luminescence Sensors Based on Semiconductor Quantum Dots 196

7.4 Light Harvesting in Solar Cells 199

7.4.1 Introduction 199

7.4.2 Direct absorption across the band gap 199

7.4.3 The Shockley-Queisser limit 201

7.4.4 Organic solar cells 203

7.4.5 Multi-junction cells 206

7.4.6 Upconversion and downconversion 207

7.4.7 Light harvesting by sensitisation 212

7.5 Light Harvesting in Natural Photosynthesis 218

7.5.1 Introduction 218

7.5.2 The photosynthetic light-harvesting apparatus 219

7.5.3 Photosynthetic energy-transfer models 222

7.5.4 Photoprotection 223

7.6 Solar Water Splitting 224

7.6.1 Background 224

7.6.2 Non-electrochemical photocatalytic water splitting 230

7.6.3 Photoelectrocatalytic water splitting 233

7.7 Applications of Defects in Diamond 233

7.8 Key Points 235

General Reading 237

References 239

Index 245

Customer Reviews