Open Mind, Faithful Heart: Reflections on Following Jesus available in Paperback
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- Crossroad Publishing Company
Now in paperback in the new Pope's own words, this definitive volume gathers his most probing thoughts on spirituality and the mission of Jesus These challenging meditations on the scriptures provide valuable insight into how Pope Francis understands the person of Jesus and the Christian calling. Anticipating his retirement as archbishop of Buenos Aires, Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio gathered together his most probing reflections on the meaning of Christian discipleship. In these profound texts Cardinal Bergoglio draws on the Gospels and the Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius to explain how all Christians are called to follow Jesus in the struggle to make God’s reign a reality on earth.
About the Author
Jorge Mario Bergoglio was elected Pope on March 13, 2013, taking the name Francis after St. Francis of Assisi. His priestly ordination was in 1969, and in 1992, he was consecrated auxiliary bishop of Buenos Aires and given the titular see of Auca. He became Buenos Aires’s coadjutor bishop in 1997, succeeded as the see’s archbishop the following year, and was elevated to cardinal in 2001. He is the author of The Power to Serve. Gustavo Larrázabal, CMF, is a Claretian missionary from Argentina. He is the former publisher of Claretian Publications of Buenos Aires. As the editor of the works of Cardinal Bergoglio, he is also a close friend. Joseph Owens, SJ, is a Jesuit who has spent most of his active career working in the Caribbean and Central America. His various ministries have included grass-roots organizing, pastoral work, radio apostolate, and teaching.
Read an Excerpt
Open Mind, Faithful Heart
Reflections on Following Jesus
By Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Pope Francis, Joseph V. Owens
The Crossroad Publishing CompanyCopyright © 1989 Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America
All rights reserved.
Jesus in Dialogue
A postolic joy is nourished by the contemplation of Jesus Christ, that is, by observing how he moved about, how he preached, how he healed, how he saw the world. ... The heart of the priest should be steeped in this contemplation and through it resolve the main challenge of his life: his friendship with Jesus Christ. I propose here to contemplate a few of Jesus' dialogues with different types of people. We want to reflect here on how Jesus speaks, first, with those who want to lay down conditions; then, with those who are trying to entrap him; and finally, with those whose heart is open to the hope of salvation.
There are many accounts in the Gospels of persons who approach Jesus but only with certain conditions. For example, Luke 9:57-62 mentions three persons who want to follow Jesus, but not unconditionally. In the Gospel of John, we read the stories of Nicodemus (John 3:1-21) and of the Samaritan woman (John 4:1-41), both of whom also approach Jesus with conditions. The three persons in Luke's Gospel seek to limit their commitment to Jesus for particular reasons: concern for wealth, for friends, for parents. The Samaritan woman, on the other hand, attempts to deflect her dialogue with Jesus because she wants to avoid what is crucial; she prefers to speak of theology rather than explain about her husbands. The case of Nicodemus is different but also conditional; he visits Jesus only when he can do so safely, under the cover of night. Jesus realizes that this man is not quite ready and so leaves him wrapped up in his musings, which serve as his refuge to avoid the demands of loyalty.
As they were going along the road, someone said to him, "I will follow you wherever you go." And Jesus said to him, "Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head." To another he said, "Follow me." But he said, "Lord, first let me go and bury my father." But Jesus said to him, "Let the dead bury their own dead; but as for you, go and proclaim the kingdom of God." Another said, "I will follow you, Lord; but let me first say farewell to those at my home." Jesus said to him, "No one who puts a hand to the plough and looks back is fit for the kingdom of God." (Luke 9:57-62)
Other persons approach Jesus deviously, with the idea of "testing" him to see whether his teaching is coherent with his action or whether cracks can be found in it which will allow religious devotion to remain a profitable business. Such persons seek to exchange faith for security, hope for possessions, love for self-interest.
In the scene of the woman taken in adultery (John 8:1-11), if Jesus approves the stoning, his mercy is called into doubt; if he disapproves, he goes against the law. In these devious dialogues Jesus usually does two things: he utters words of instruction to those who want to trap him, but he speaks differently to the victim (here, the adulterous woman) and directly addresses the deceitful situation. In this case, Jesus turns the condemnation back on the schemers, telling them to apply it to themselves, and then he restores to the woman her very life, encouraging her to live from that point on responsibly.
Similarly, we can meditate on the devious question about paying tribute to Caesar (Matt 22:15-22), which attempts to implicate Jesus in the Sadducean temptation of collaborating with Rome. To this question and the one about his own authority (Luke 20:1-8) Jesus responds by exhorting his adversaries to pay heed to the "authorities" that God has sent to them but that they have refused to accept.
Then the Pharisees went and plotted to entrap him in what he said. So they sent their disciples to him, along with the Herodians, saying, "Teacher, we know that you are sincere, and teach the way of God in accordance with truth, and show deference to no one; for you do not regard people with partiality. Tell us, then, what you think. Is it lawful to pay taxes to the emperor, or not?" But Jesus, aware of their malice, said, "Why are you putting me to the test, you hypocrites? Show me the coin used for the tax." And they brought him a denarius. Then he said to them, "Whose head is this, and whose title?"They answered, "The emperor's." Then he said to them, "Give therefore to the emperor the things that are the emperor's, and to God the things that are God's." When they heard this, they were amazed; and they left him and went away. (Matt 22:15-22)
To another wily question of the Sadducees, about the woman who was married to seven brothers (Matt 22:23-33), the Lord responds by looking toward the eschatological horizon. When the devious heart becomes irreversibly hardened, then there is sin unto death (1 John 5:16), sin against the Holy Spirit (Matt 12:32), and confusion of spirits. This ploy is so shameful that the Lord doesn't even bother to argue with the tricksters: he responds simply by asserting the sublimity of the glorified life (Luke 20:27-40).
Jesus said to them, "Those who belong to this age marry and are given in marriage; but those who are considered worthy of a place in that age and in the resurrection from the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage. Indeed they cannot die any more, because they are like angels and are children of God, being children of the resurrection. And the fact that the dead are raised Moses himself showed, in the story about the bush, where he speaks of the Lord as the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. Now he is God not of the dead, but of the living; for to him all of them are alive." Then some of the scribes answered, "Teacher, you have spoken well." For they no longer dared to ask him another question. (Luke 20:34-40)
At the root of every devious dialogue are vainglory, sensuality, pride, and greed. The Lord teaches us to respond to these deceitful provocations by recalling the wondrous story of our faithful people (Matt 4:1-11).
Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. He fasted for forty days and forty nights, and afterwards he was famished. The tempter came and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command these stones to become loaves of bread." But he answered, "It is written, 'One does not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God.'"
Then the devil took him to the holy city and placed him on the pinnacle of the temple, saying to him, "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down; for it is written, 'He will command his angels concerning you,' and 'On their hands they will bear you up, so that you will not dash your foot against a stone.'" Jesus said to him, "Again it is written, 'Do not put the Lord your God to the test.'"
Again, the devil took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their splendor; and he said to him, "All these I will give you, if you will fall down and worship me." Jesus said to him, "Away with you, Satan! for it is written, 'Worship the Lord your God, and serve only him.'" Then the devil left him, and suddenly angels came and waited on him. (Matt 4:1-11)
Finally, a third group of dialogues in which Jesus engages might be called dialogues of loyalty. They take place when people approach Jesus without duplicity or conditions, with a heart open to God's revelation. They put everything on the table. When people draw close to Jesus in this way, his heart overflows with joy (Luke 10:21).
For Prayer and Reflection
With a ready heart and a great desire to encounter the Lord, let us meditate on the dialogue between Jesus and the man born blind in John 9:1-41.CHAPTER 2
Living in Constant Encounter
An abyss separates the priest from the religious functionary; they are qualitatively different. Sadly, however, the priest can be slowly transformed, little by little, into a religious functionary. When that happens, the priesthood ceases to be a bridge, and the priest is no longer a pontifex, a builder of bridges; he ends up simply having a function to perform. He ceases to be a mediator and becomes simply an intermediary. No one chooses to be a priest; it is Jesus Christ who does the choosing. Priestly existence remains true to itself only when it draws deeply on direct encounter with Jesus Christ. The priest must seek the Lord and let himself be sought in return; he must encounter the Lord and allow himself to be encountered in turn. All of this goes together; it is inseparable. John Paul II in his book Gift and Mystery speaks of the priest as the person who is in contact with God. He presents the priest as engaged in a twofold movement of seeking to encounter God (ascent) and receiving holiness from God (descent). "It is the holiness of the paschal mystery," he writes. When the priest moves away from this dual movement, he becomes disoriented. Holiness is not just a collection of virtues. Indeed, such a conception of holiness causes great harm; it stifles our hearts, and after a while it fashions us into Pharisees. Holiness means "walking in the presence of God and being perfect"; holiness means living in constant encounter with Jesus Christ.
To begin this prayer, I propose that you meditate on the presentation of Jesus in the temple (Luke 2:22-39). The liturgy for the feast tells us that in this mystery "the Lord goes out to meet the people." There in the temple we find old people and young, Law and Spirit, promise and reality, prophet and God's faithful people. This is Candlemas Day, when we celebrate the small flame that will keep growing until it becomes the fire of the paschal vigil.
Now there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon; this man was righteous and devout, looking forward to the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit rested on him. It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not see death before he had seen the Lord's Messiah. Guided by the Spirit, Simeon came into the temple; and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him what was customary under the law, Simeon took him in his arms and praised God, saying, "Master, now you are dismissing your servant in peace, according to your word; for my eyes have seen your salvation, which you have prepared in the presence of all peoples, a light for revelation to the Gentiles and for glory to your people Israel." (Luke 2:25-32)
The gospels recount many scenes of people searching for Jesus and finding him. In each scene we can see some trait that may help us in our prayer. The encounter with Jesus always involves a call; the call may be a great one or a small one, but it is always there (Matt 4:18-19; 9:9; 10:1-4). The encounter may happen at any time, and it is pure gratuity, totally unmerited (Matt 20:5-6). Sometimes the encounter must be sought out (Matt 8:2-3; 9:9); it may require heroic persistence (Matt 15:21-40) or loud shouts (Matt 8:24-25). The seeking may even entail painful confusion and doubt (Luke 7:18-24; Matt 11:2-7). However it happens, the encounter with Jesus Christ leads us toward ever greater humility (Luke 5:4-10). His invitation can be rejected or half-heartedly accepted (Matt 13:1-23). When it is rejected, pain pierces the heart of Christ (Matt 23:37-39; Matt 11:20-30). Seeking out Christ and finding him is not the anodyne exercise of a Pelagian spirit; rather, it assumes that there is sin and repentance (Matt 21:28-32). The encounter with Jesus Christ takes place in our daily lives, in the direct contact of prayer, in the wise discernment of the signs of the times (Matt 24:32-33; Luke 21:29-32), and in our brothers and sisters (Matt 25:31-46; Luke 10:25-37).
Then the king will say to those at his right hand, "Come, you that are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; for I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me, I was naked and you gave me clothing, I was sick and you took care of me, I was in prison and you visited me." (Matt 25:34-36)
The Lord himself recommends that we be vigilantly on the lookout for this encounter. Jesus searches for me. He does not view us as part of a crowd but seeks us out one by one, searching our hearts. Vigilance means being receptive to the wisdom that will help us discern Jesus and truly find him. Sometimes the Lord passes by our side and we don't even see him — or else we "know him so well" that we don't recognize him. Our vigilance is the prayerful attitude that makes us want to keep him with us when he seems to want to "continue on his way" (Mark 6:48-50; Luke 24:28-30).
As they came near the village to which they were going, he walked ahead as if he were going on. But they urged him strongly, saying, "Stay with us, because it is almost evening and the day is now nearly over." So he went in to stay with them. When he was at the table with them, he took bread, blessed and broke it, and gave it to them. (Luke 24:28-30)
For Prayer and Reflection
We can end our prayer with the gesture of the Magi. After discerning heavenly signs and spending long years in search of the child, they finally find him. And when they do, they bow down in adoration (Matt 2:11).
On entering the house, they saw the child with Mary his mother; and they knelt down and paid him homage. Then, opening their treasure-chests, they offered him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh.CHAPTER 3
Believing in Joy
We are writing these things so that our joy may be complete. (1 John 1:4)
"I have said these things to you so that my joy may be in you, and that your joy may be complete." (John 15:11)
"I speak these things in the world so that they may have my joy made complete in themselves." (John 17:13)
The joy spoken of here is the joy occasioned by the gift of God (Luke 1:10-15; Rom 15:13) and by the visitation of God himself (Luke 1:41-44). It is the joy that grips us when we are able to grasp the whole of salvation history (Luke 1:47) or foresee it in faith (John 8:56; 1 Pet 4:13). Such joy is the fruit of the presence of the Holy Spirit (Luke 10:21). It strengthens us in times of trial (Luke 6:23: Heb 10:34; Rom 12:12; 1 Pet 1:6; 2 Cor 6:12), and it accompanies us, as it did the apostles, in our evangelizing work (Luke 24:52; Acts 13:52) because it is a sign of the Lord's abiding presence. It is a vitally apostolic joy that helps to consolidate the bond of love between founding apostle and local church (Phil 1:25; 4:1; Phlm 7; 1 John 1:4; 2 John 12). Throughout the scriptures, we are urged to let our joy be complete.
Now at the time of the incense offering, the whole assembly of the people was praying outside. Then there appeared to him an angel of the Lord, standing at the right side of the altar of incense. When Zechariah saw him, he was terrified; and fear overwhelmed him. But the angel said to him, "Do not be afraid, Zechariah, for your prayer has been heard. Your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you will name him John. You will have joy and gladness, and many will rejoice at his birth, for he will be great in the sight of the Lord." (Luke 1:10-15)
When Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting, the child leapt in her womb. And Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit and exclaimed with a loud cry, "Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb. And why has this happened to me, that the mother of my Lord comes to me? For as soon as I heard the sound of your greeting, the child in my womb leapt for joy." (Luke 1:41-44)
Excerpted from Open Mind, Faithful Heart by Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Pope Francis, Joseph V. Owens. Copyright © 1989 Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America. Excerpted by permission of The Crossroad Publishing Company.
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Table of Contents
Foreword Gustavo Larrazábal, CFM ix
Prologue José María Arancedo xiii
To the Reader of the English Edition Joseph V. Owens, SJ xix
I Encountering Jesus 1
1 Jesus in Dialogue 3
2 Living in Constant Encounter 8
3 Believing in Joy 12
4 Joy and Perseverance 19
5 The Faith That Frees Us 24
6 Called Despite Our Fears 34
7 Nurtured by the Church 44
8 Cross and Mission 53
9 The Courage of the Cross 64
10 The Challenge of Sin 74
11 The Hopelessness of Sin 78
12 Testing and Temptation 87
13 Humility and Hope 94
14 United by the Grace of Memory 101
II Manifestations of Light 109
15 The Light of Jesus 111
16 Staying Alert 115
17 The Hardening of Hearts 120
18 God's Plan Unveiled 126
19 Passing On the Faith 132
20 The Son Reveals the Father 137
21 The Vision of the Wedding Feast 145
22 Faith beyond Space and Time 160
III The Letters to the Seven Churches 167
23 Reading the Apocalypse 169
24 Ephesus-Recapturing the First Love 174
25 Smyrna-Overcoming Fatigue and Bitterness 181
26 Pergamum-Holding On to the Truth 186
27 Thyatira-Loyalty to Our Inheritance 192
28 Sardis-Restoring Self-Respect 196
29 Philadelphia-Love among Sisters and Brothers 203
30 Laodicea-True Friendship 207
IV Human Prayer 211
31 Drawing Close to All Flesh 213
32 Abraham: Learning to Let Go 217
33 Prayer as Obedience to Mission 221
34 David: The Art of Surrender 227
35 The Solitude of Prayer 231
36 Moses and the People: Intercession vs. Murmuring 236
37 God Revealed in Weakness and Limitation 240
38 Job: Praying from Our Sores 244
39 Homeward Bound 248
40 Simeon: Led by the Spirit 155
41 The Mystery of Talking with God 258
42 Judith: Speaking Freely with God 267
43 Entering into the Humanity of Jesus 271
44 Freely Embracing Death 274
45 The Totality of Surrender 277
46 The Failure of Jesus 281
47 Jesus Christ the Priest 286
48 Holding Back Nothing 289