Nonprofits and Government provides students and practitioners with the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary, research-based inquiry into the collaborative and conflicting relationship between nonprofits and government at all levels: local, national, and international. The contributorsall leading expertsexplore how government regulates, facilitates, finances, and oversees nonprofit activities, and how nonprofits, in turn, try to shape the way government serves the public and promotes the civic, religious, and cultural life of the country. Buttressed by rigorous scholarship, a solid grasp of history, and practical ideas, this 360-degree assessment frees discussion of the nonprofit sector’s relationship to government from both wishful and insular thinking. The third edition, addresses the tremendous changes that created both opportunities and challenges for nonprofit-government relations over the past ten years, including new audit requirements, tax and regulatory changes, consequences of the Affordable Care Act and the Great Recession, and new nonprofit and philanthropic forms.
Contributors include Alan J. Abramson, Elizabeth T. Boris, Erica Broadus, Evelyn Brody, John Casey, Roger Colinvaux, Joseph J. Cordes , Teresa Derrick-Mills, Nathan Dietz, Lewis Faulk, Marion Fremont-Smith, Saunji D. Fyffe, Virginia Hodgkinson, Béatrice Leydier, Cindy M. Lott, Jasmine McGinnis Johnson, Brice McKeever, Susan D. Phillips, Steven Rathgeb Smith, Ellen Steele, C. Eugene Steuerle, Dennis R. Young, and Mary K. Winkler.
About the Author
Alan J. Abramson is a Professor in the Schar School of Policy and Government at George Mason University and Founding Director of Mason's Center for Nonprofit Management, Philanthropy, and Policy. Previously, he was a program director at the Aspen Institute and on the research staff at the Urban Institute. In 2015-2016, he is serving as president of the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA), the nation's leading association of nonprofit researchers.
Mark Blumberg is a charity lawyer based in Toronto with Blumberg Segal LLP and has worked for over 20 years on issues relating to non-profits, registered charities and philanthropy, in Canada and abroad. Mark has written and lectured extensively on these topics. He is the editor of two blogs namely www.CanadianCharityLaw.ca and www.GlobalPhilanthropy.ca™.
Elizabeth T. Boris is the Waldemar A. Nielsen Chair of Philanthropy at the McCourt School of Public Policy at Georgetown University and an Urban Institute Fellow. She was the founding director of the Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy at the Urban Institute, which she led from 1996-2016. She is co-editor with Gene Steuerle of two previous editions of Nonprofits and Government, author of many research studies on nonprofits and philanthropy, and an active advisor and board member of many groups.
Erica Broadus is earning her PhD in public policy and public administration at George Washington University. Erica’s research focuses on women’s participation in social entrepreneurship and policies that help low-income women thrive.
Evelyn Brody is a professor at Chicago-Kent College of Law, Illinois Institute of Technology, and has spent semesters visiting at the University of Pennsylvania, Duke, and New York University law schools. She teaches courses on tax and nonprofit law. She edited the multi-disciplinary volume Property-Tax Exemption for Charities: Mapping the Battlefield.
John Casey is an Associate Professor in the School of Public Affairs at Baruch College, City University of New York. Prior to academia, he held executive positions in government and nonprofits in Australia, Spain and the USA. His latest book is The Nonprofit World: Civil Society and Rise of the Nonprofit Sector.
Roger Colinvaux is a Professor of Law at the The Catholic University of America, where he teaches tax, legislation, and property courses and directs the Law and Public Policy Program. He is the author of numerous articles about regulation of the nonprofit sector through federal tax law, and for seven years served as counsel to the Congressional Joint Committee on Taxation.
Joseph J. Cordes is Associate Director of the School of Public Policy and Public Administration and Professor of Economics, Public Policy and Public Administration, and International Affairs and co-director of The George Washington University Regulatory Studies Center. He is the co-editor of The Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy and of Nonprofits and Business.
Teresa Derrick-Mills is a senior research associate in the Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy and the Center on Labor, Human Services, and Population at the Urban Institute. She is also an adjunct professor in the Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration at George Washington University.
Nathan Dietz is a Senior Research Associate in the Urban Institute’s Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy. He has served as Associate Director of the National Center for Charitable Statistics, and has led Urban’s involvement in the Growth in Giving Initiative and the Fourth Sector Mapping Initiative.
Lewis Faulk is an Assistant Professor of Public Administration and Policy in the School of Public Affairs at American University. Dr. Faulk has a Ph.D. in Public Policy from Georgia State University and the Georgia Institute of Technology. His research focuses on nonprofit management, nonprofit finance, and the intersection of nonprofit organizations and public policy.
Marion R. Fremont-Smith is a Senior Research Fellow at the Hauser Institute for Civil Society of the Center for Public Leadership at Harvard Kennedy School. She has served as Assistant Attorney General and Director of the Division of Public Charities in Massachusetts. She is the author of Governing Nonprofit Organizations: Federal and State Law and Regulation.
Saunji D. Fyffe is a researcher in the Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy at the Urban Institute. Previously, she worked at several nonprofit trade associations where she oversaw performance management efforts, leadership and management training programs, large-scale organizational change initiatives and the development and implementation of workforce equity strategies.
Virginia A. Hodgkinson is a retired Research Professor of Public Policy and Director at the Center for Voluntary Organizations and Service, The Georgetown University Public Policy Institute. Hodgkinson is the author and editor of numerous articles and books on the nonprofit sector including The Nonprofit Almanac: Dimensions of the Independent Sector 1996-1998, and The Civil Society Reader.
Béatrice Leydier is a dual Master’s student in Management and Public Policy at HEC Paris (Grande Ecole) and Georgetown University (McCourt School). At Georgetown, she has worked as a Research Assistant to Elizabeth Boris, along with other engagements at the nexus of private, public and nonprofit sectors.
Cindy M. Lott serves as Program Director for Nonprofit Management Programs at Columbia University’s School of Professional Studies. Prior to her current position, she served as Executive Director and Senior Counsel to the National State Attorneys General Program at Columbia Law School, and within that Program was the developer and lead counsel to the Charities Regulation and Oversight Project.
Jasmine McGinnis Johnson is an Assistant Professor in the Trachtenberg School of Public Policy and Public Administration at George Washington University. Her research focuses on the interaction between philanthropic governance and grantmaking decisions, nonprofit grant networks, and the recruitment and retention of Millennial nonprofit employees.
Brice McKeever is a researcher in the Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy at the Urban Institute, where he performs quantitative research and analysis for the National Center for Charitable Statistics. Previously, he worked as a research analyst at the University of Virginia’s Center for Survey Research.
Susan Phillips is Professor, School of Public Policy and Administration, Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada, and Program Director of the Master of Philanthropy and Nonprofit Leadership. Susan’s research focuses on comparative analysis of public policy governing nonprofits and philanthropy, community foundations and cross-sectoral collaboration. She is co-editor of the Routledge Companion to Philanthropy and Co-Editor-in-Chief of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly.
Steven Rathgeb Smith is the executive director of the American Political Science Association. He has taught at several universities including the University of Washington where he was the Nancy Bell Evans Professor of Public Affairs. His most recent book is Nonprofits and Advocacy (with Robert Pekkanen and Yutaka Tsujinaka). He is president-elect of the International Society for Third Sector Research.
Ellen Steele is a Research Associate II at the Urban Institute. Under the Tax Policy and Charities project of the Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center and the Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy, she has researched Donor Advised Funds, foundation payouts, and estate giving.
C. Eugene Steuerle is an Institute fellow and the Richard B. Fischer chair at the Urban Institute. He served as deputy assistant secretary of the US Department of the Treasury for Tax Analysis (1987–89) before co-founding the Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center, Urban’s Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy, and Act for Alexandria, a community foundation. His other books include Dead Men Ruling, Contemporary U.S. Tax Policy, and Nonprofits and Business.
Mary Kopczynski Winkler is a Senior Research Associate in the Center on Nonprofits and Philanthropy at the Urban Institute where she oversees Urban’s Cross-Center Initiative on Performance Measurement and Management. She is a member of the Leap of Reason Ambassador Community – a private community of nonprofit thought leaders and practitioners – committed to increasing the adoption of high performance in the social sector.
Dennis R. Young is Executive in Residence in the Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs, Cleveland State University and Professor Emeritus, Georgia State University. He is editor-in-chief of the journal Nonprofit Policy Forum. His recent books as co-editor include The Social Enterprise Zoo, the Third Sector and Social Enterprise, and the Handbook of Research on Nonprofit Economics and Management.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Roles and Responsibilities of Nonprofit Organizations in a Democracy
Elizabeth T. Boris, Brice McKeever, and Beatrice Leydier
Chapter 1: Supplementary, Complementary or Adversarial?
Dennis Young and John Casey
Chapter 2: Meeting Social Needs through Charitable and Government Resources
C. Eugene Steuerle, Alan Abramson, Ellen Steele, and Virginia Hodgkinson
Chapter 3: Cross-Sector Nonprofit-Government Financing
Steven Rathgeb Smith
Chapter 4: Tax Treatment of Nonprofit Organizations
A Two-Edged Sword?
Evelyn Brody and Joseph J. Cordes
Chapter 5: State Regulatory and Legal Framework
Cindy Lott and Marion Fremont-Smith
Chapter 6: Nonprofits and Advocacy
Chapter 7: No Taxation, No Representation: How Government
Is Organized – or Not – to Address Nonprofit Issues
Alan J. Abramson
Chapter 8: Philanthropy: Shaping and Being Shaped by Public Policy
Lewis Faulk and Jasmine McGinnis Johnson
Chapter 9: New Ways of Creating Social Value: Hybrids and Impact Investing
Joe Cordes, Gene Steuerle, Nathan Dietz, and Erica Broadus
Chapter 10: Performance Measurement and Management: The Tangled
Web of Nonprofit-Government Relationships
Saunji Fyffe, Teresa Derrick-Mills, Mary K. Winkler
Chapter 11: International Trends in Government-Nonprofit Relations:
Constancy, Change and Contradictions
Susan D. Phillips and Mark Blumberg
About the Contributors