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This volume contains proceedings of the NATO-Russia Advanced Research Workshop on Nanostructured Thin Films and Nanodispersion Strengthened Coatings (December, 2003, Moscow). During this Workshop leading researchers from twelve countries had presented and discussed most recent developments in the fields of plasma physics and surface engineering related to the preparation and applications of nanostructured thin films and nanodispersion strengthened coatings. These presentations are encompassed in 31 individual chapters. The chapters are assembled in five parts in according to the workshop sessions. Part I is a compilation of chapters on hard and tribological coatings. The recent advances in this area are significant in that it is now possible to engineer strong, hard, and tough coatings that can operate at temperatures higher than 1200 ?C and exhibit ‘smart’, adaptive characteristics. These coatings are based on an amorphous matrix, e. g. nitrides, carbides, borides, or carbon, in which there is a controlled nucleation and growth of ultra hard nanoparticles of crystalline carbides, nitrides, borides and oxides. The critical feature is the control of both the particle size, i. e. , less than 10 nm, and interpartical spacing of a few nanometers. The ‘smart’ or adaptive characteristic is engineered into the nanostructures using similar sized (less than 10 nm) particles of metallic chalcogenidese, ductile metals, or glass forming elements to provide high lubricity and chemical adaptation at the environment change, e. g. , high and low humidities and temperatures.