ISBN-10:
1580530079
ISBN-13:
9781580530071
Pub. Date:
01/31/2001
Publisher:
Artech House, Incorporated
Mobile Antenna Systems Handbook 2nd Ed. / Edition 2

Mobile Antenna Systems Handbook 2nd Ed. / Edition 2

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Overview

This is an extensively revised and updated new edition of the best-selling Mobile Antenna Systems Handbook. Comprehensive, authoritative and practical, it provides the information you need to understand the relationship between the elements involved in antenna systems design for mobile communications. You get sound advice in choosing the appropriate antenna for any given requirement including antennas for ITS, access to the latest modeling formulas for macro, micro and pico cell propagation, and guidance on the latest RF safety standards and measurement techniques.

Up-to-date information on adaptive base station and handset antenna design enables you to quickly achieve your design targets. From improved signal processing to more precise propagation methods, new sections provide you with cutting-edge design techniques that greatly increase system capacity and flexibility to deliver today's most sought-after mobile communication services. This detailed handbook contains over 470 illustrations and 190 equations.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781580530071
Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date: 01/31/2001
Series: Antennas and Propagation Library Series
Edition description: REV
Pages: 732
Sales rank: 491,512
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.75(d)

About the Author

Kyohei Fujimoto is an emeritus professor at the University of Tsukuba, Japan. He has been concerned with mobile communications and antennas for mobile systems for more than 30 years. He specializes in small antennas and integrated antennas. He holds B.Eng. and Dr.Eng. in Electrical Engineering from Tokyo Institute of Technology.

J.R. James is an emeritus professor at the Royal Military College of Science, Cranfield University and consultant engineer. His recent research activity includes the analysis and design of high-frequency sensor systems in communication, radar and medicine. He holds a B.Sc. in mathematics, a Ph.D. in electromagnetics and a D.Sc. from London University and is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering.

Table of Contents

Authorship by Chapterxiii
Preface to the Second Editionxv
Chapter 1Importance of Antennas in Mobile Communication Systems and Recent Trends1
1.1Introduction1
1.2Trends8
1.2.1Communications11
1.2.2Increasing Information Flow12
1.2.3Propagation Challenges13
1.2.4Maritime Systems15
1.2.5Aeronautical Systems15
1.3Modern Mobile Antenna Design15
1.4Objectives of This Book19
References20
Chapter 2Essential Techniques in Mobile Antenna Systems Design23
2.1Mobile Communication Systems23
2.1.1Technologies in Mobile Communications23
2.1.2Frequencies Used in Mobile Systems29
2.1.3System Design and Antennas32
2.2Fundamentals and Predictive Models in Land Mobile Propagation34
2.2.1Propagation Problems in Land Mobile Communications34
2.2.2Propagation Models and Field Strength35
2.2.3Formula for the Two-Wave Theory on a Flat Ground36
2.2.4Some Established Models39
2.2.5Effect of Manmade Structures40
2.2.6Multipath Fading Model42
2.2.7Maritime and Aeronautical Mobile Systems48
2.3Antenna Design49
2.3.1Requirements for Mobile Antennas49
2.3.2Diversity Techniques55
2.4Antenna Performance Evaluations in Mobile Environments62
2.4.1Theoretical Expression of Antenna Performance in the Mobile Environment63
2.4.2Statistical Distribution Model of Incident Waves68
2.4.3MEG Characteristics of Dipole Antennas71
2.4.4Correlation Characteristics of Polarization Diversity79
References86
Chapter 3Advances in Mobile Propagation Prediction Methods89
3.1Introduction89
3.2Macrocells89
3.2.1Definition of Parameters91
3.2.2Empirical Path Loss Models92
3.2.3Physical Models99
3.2.4Comparison of Models110
3.2.5Computerized Planning Tools111
3.2.6Conclusions111
3.3Microcells112
3.3.1Dual-Slope Empirical Models113
3.3.2Physical Models114
3.3.3Non-Line-of-Sight Models119
3.3.4Microcell Propagation Models: Discussion125
3.3.5Microcell Shadowing126
3.3.6Conclusions127
3.4Picocells127
3.4.1Empirical Models of Propagation Within Buildings128
3.4.2Empirical Models of Propagation Into Buildings132
3.4.3Physical Models of Indoor Propagation135
3.4.4Constitutive Parameters for Physical Models138
3.4.5Propagation in Picocells: Discussion139
3.4.6Multipath Effects139
3.4.7Conclusions141
3.5Megacells141
3.5.1Shadowing and Fast Fading144
3.5.2Local Shadowing Effects145
3.5.3Empirical Narrowband Models146
3.5.4Statistical Models149
3.5.5Physical-Statistical Models for Built-Up Areas157
3.5.6Wideband Models163
3.5.7Multisatellite Correlations165
3.5.8Overall Mobile-Satellite Channel Model166
3.6The Future168
3.6.1Intelligent Antennas168
3.6.2Multidimensional Channel Models168
3.6.3High-Resolution Data169
3.6.4Analytical Formulations169
3.6.5Physical-Statistical Channel Modeling169
3.6.6Real-Time Channel Predictions170
3.6.7Overall170
References170
Chapter 4Land Mobile Antenna Systems I: Basic Techniques and Applications175
4.1Antennas175
4.2Propagation Problems178
4.3Base Station Antenna Techniques179
4.3.1Antenna System Requirements179
4.3.2Types of Antennas183
4.3.3Design of Shaped-Beam Antennas184
4.3.4Diversity Antenna Systems195
4.3.5Intermodulation Problems in Antennas200
4.4Mobile Station Antenna Techniques202
References204
Chapter 5Advances in Base Station Antennas207
5.1Recent Base Station Antennas207
5.1.1Base Station Antennas for Cellular Systems208
5.1.2Antennas for Personal Handy Phone System235
5.1.3Adaptive Array Antenna for Wireless Local Loop242
5.1.4Antennas for N-STAR Systems245
5.2Digital Beamforming Antennas in Mobile Communications252
5.2.1What Do We Mean by "Digital Signal Processing Antennas"?252
5.2.2Basic Configuration of DBF Antennas255
5.2.3Analog-to-Digital Conversion257
5.2.4Element-Space and Beam-Space Beamforming261
5.2.5Adaptive Algorithm262
5.2.6Spatial Signal Processing Antennas267
5.2.7Space-Time Signal Processing274
5.2.8Reconfigurable Adaptive Array: Software Antenna286
References289
Chapter 6Land Mobile Antenna Systems II: Pagers, Portable Phones, and Safety293
6.1Practical Requirements of and Constraints on Pager Antenna Design293
6.1.1Effect of the Human Body on Antennas295
6.1.2Aspects of Manufacture299
6.1.3Measurement of Pager Antenna Performance300
6.1.4Pocket Pager Size Constraints303
6.1.5Concluding Remarks303
6.2Pager Types and Performance304
6.2.1Design Considerations304
6.2.2Card-Sized Equipment309
6.3Design Techniques for Portable Phone Antennas312
6.3.1Design Considerations312
6.3.2Antenna Types313
6.3.3Antenna Diversity324
6.3.4Conclusions324
6.4Portable Phone Antenna Systems325
6.4.1System Design Aspects325
6.4.2Handheld Systems332
6.5Safety Aspects of Portable and Mobile Communication Devices334
6.5.1Exposure to RF Energy334
6.5.2Specific Absorbtion Rate of Electromagnetic Energy336
6.5.3Measurement of SAR337
6.5.4Safety Criteria343
6.5.5Exposure from Mobile Radios345
6.5.6Exposure of Portable Radio Operators347
6.5.7SAR Values of Portable Radios350
6.5.8SAR Values of Cellular Phones353
6.5.9Discussion and Conclusions355
References357
Chapter 7Antennas and Humans in Personal Communications361
7.1Applications of Modern EM Computational Techniques361
7.1.1Introduction361
7.1.2Definition of Design Parameters for Handset Antennas365
7.1.3Finite-Difference Time-Domain Formulation367
7.1.4Eigenfunction Expansion Method369
7.1.5Results Using EEM371
7.1.6Results Using the FDTD Method394
7.1.7Assessment of Dual-Antenna Handset Diversity Performance407
7.2Design and Practice of Antennas for Handsets414
7.2.1Design Concept414
7.2.2Antennas for GSM417
7.2.3Antennas for PDC438
7.2.4Antennas for PHS447
7.2.5Diversity Performance in PDC Handsets452
References458
Chapter 8Land Mobile Antenna Systems III: Cars, Trains, and Intelligent Transportation Systems461
8.1Antenna Systems for Broadcast Reception in Cars461
8.1.1Introduction462
8.1.2Reception for AM and FM463
8.1.3FM Antenna Diversity Systems468
8.1.4FM Multiantenna Systems472
8.2Antenna Systems for TV Reception in Cars481
8.2.1Antennas Printed on the Rear Quarter Windows482
8.2.2A Three-Element Antenna System for AM, FM, and TV Reception486
8.3Antenna Systems for Shinkansen (New Bullet Train)491
8.3.1Introduction491
8.3.2Train Radio Communication Systems491
8.3.3Antenna System494
8.4Intelligent Transportation Systems500
8.4.1General500
8.4.2Antennas for ETC501
8.4.3Vehicle Information and Communication System507
References518
Chapter 9Antennas for Mobile Satellite Systems521
9.1Introduction521
9.2System Requirements for Vehicle Antennas522
9.2.1Mechanical Characteristics522
9.2.2Electrical Characteristics523
9.2.3Propagation Problems527
9.2.4Fading Reduction Techniques530
9.2.5Mount Systems534
9.2.6Tracking/Pointing Systems537
9.3Omnidirectional Antennas for Mobile Satellite Communications538
9.3.1Overview538
9.3.2Quadrifilar Helical Antenna539
9.3.3Crossed-Drooping Dipole Antenna539
9.3.4Patch Antenna540
9.4Directional Antennas for Mobile Satellite Communications542
9.4.1Antennas for INMARSAT542
9.4.2Directional Antennas in the PROSAT Program552
9.4.3Directional Antennas in the ETS-V Program552
9.4.4Directional Antennas in the MSAT-X Program558
9.4.5Directional Antennas in the MSAT Program566
9.5Antenna Systems for GPS568
9.5.1General Requirements for GPS Antennas568
9.5.2Quadrifilar Helical Antennas570
9.5.3Microstrip Antennas573
9.5.4Array Antenna for GPS Reception575
9.6Satellite Constellation Systems and Antenna Requirements577
9.6.1Constellation Systems and Demands on Antenna Design579
9.6.2Handset Antennas for Satellite Systems585
References608
Chapter 10Antenna Systems for Aeronautical Mobile Communications613
10.1Propagation Problems613
10.2General Requirements and Remarks614
10.3Advanced Circularly Polarized Antennas617
10.3.1Crossed-Dipole Antennas618
10.3.2Crossed-Slot Antennas619
10.3.3Quadrifilar Helical Antennas622
10.3.4Microstrip Patch Antennas622
References630
AppendixGlossary633
A.1Catalog of Antenna Types634
A.1.1Dipole Derivatives634
A.1.2Loop and Slot Derivatives635
A.1.3Material Loading636
A.1.4Printed Elements636
A.1.5Balun Requirements and Imperfect Ground Planes637
A.1.6Arrays and Diversity Systems638
A.1.7Recent Innovative Concepts638
A.1.8Key to Symbols and Acronyms used in Sections A.2 to A.6653
A.2Land Mobile Systems654
A.2.1Automobiles654
A.2.2Portable Equipment660
A.2.3Trains665
A.2.4Base Stations665
A.3Maritime Systems667
A.4Aeronautical Systems669
A.5Satellite Systems676
A.6Typical Antenna Types and Their Applications678
References680
Acronyms and Abbreviations687
About the Authors691
Index695

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