Knowledge of basic clay microstructure is fundamental to an understanding of the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of fine-grained sediments and rocks. This compilation of fifty-nine peer-reviewed papers examines clay microstructure in detail with comprehensive sections focusing on microstructure signatures, environmental processes, modeling, measurement techniques, and future research recommendations. Many of these topics are discussed in light of geological and engineering applications, such as hazardous waste disposal, construction techniques, and drilling programs. The field of clay microstructure is developing rapidly. The concepts, observations, and principles presented in this book will help stimulate new thought and be a "spring board" for exciting new research.
Table of ContentsI Basic Clay Microstructure.- A. Microstructure: Signatures.- 1 The Signatures of Clay Microstructure-Overview.- 2 Determinants of Clay and Shale Microfabric Signatures: Processes and Mechanisms.- 3 Millimeter-Scale Sedimentary Structure of Fine-Grained Sediments: Examples from Continental Margin Environments.- 4 Problems of Particle Delamination and of Stepwise Aggregation in Clay Swelling.- 5 The Nature and Significance of Gas-Generated Microvoids as “Secondary” Microfabric Features in Modern and Pleistocene Marine and Estuarine Sediments.- 6 Clay Fabric of Fine-Grained Turbidite Sequences from the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain s.- 7 Microfabric and Physical Properties Characteristics of a Consolidated Clay Section: ODP Site 697, Weddell Sea.- 8 Physical Property Changes Accompanying Deep Burial of Clay-Rich Sediments, Barbados Convergent Margin.- 9 Sedimentary Structures: Textures and Depositional Settings of Shales from the Lower Belt Supergroup, Mid-Proterozoic, Montana, U.S.A.- 10 Porosities, Permeabilities, and Microfabrics of Devonian Shales.- I Basic Clay Microstructure.- B. Environmental Processes: A Continuum.- 11 Environmental Processes: A ContinuumOverview.- 12 Interparticle Grain Size Relationships Resulting from Flocculation.- 13 The Changing Microfabric of Suspended Particulate MatterThe Fluvial to Marine Transition: Flocculation, Agglomeration, and Pelletization.- 14 Microstructure of Suspensates: From Stream to Shelf.- 15 The Influence of Organic Carbon Flux on the Deposition of Clays in the Marine Environment: Implications with Respect to Microstructure.- 16 Mass Arrival Mechanisms and Clay Deposition at the Seafloor.- 17 Distinguishing Features of Layered Muds Deposited from Shallow Water High Concentration Suspensions.- 18 Effect of Bed Shear Stresses on the Deposition and Strength of Deposited Cohesive Muds.- 19 Fluidization of Soft Estuarine Mud by Waves.- 20 The Significance of Sediment-Flow Dynamics on Clay Microstructure Development: Riverine and Continental Shelf Environments.- 21 Silt Microfabric of Detrital, Deep Sea Mud(stone)s (California Continental Borderland) as Shown by Backscattered Electron Microscopy.- 22 Physical Properties and Microstructural Response of Sediments to Accretion-Subduction: Barbados Forearc.- 23 Anomalous Stress History of Sediments of the Northwest Pacific: The Role of Microstructure.- II Applied Clay Microstructure.- A. ModelingPast and Present: New Directions.- 24 ModelingPast and Present: New DirectionsOverview.- 25 Influence of Some Physicochemical Activities on Mechanical Behavior of Clays.- 26 Organization of Clay Particles in Aqueous Suspension as Inferred from Spectroscopy of Organic Dyes.- 27 Some Effects of Vicinal Water on the Sedimentation Process, Compaction, and Ultimate Properties of Sediments.- 28 Rheology and Microstructure of Concentrated Illite Suspensions.- 29 A Coupled Fluid Expulsion/Deformation Model of Dewatering Sediments.- 30 The Floc Camera: A Three-Dimensional Imaging System of Suspended Particulate Matter.- 31 Characterization of Clay Fabric.- 32 Microtexture and Microchemistry of Clay-Rich Sediments.- 33 Quantitative Rock Mineral Analysis.- II Applied Clay Microstructure.- B. Measurements/Techniques/Sampling Strategy.- 34 Applied Clay Microstructure: Measurements, Techniques, and Sampling Strategies for Clay Fabric ResearchOverview.- 35 Techniques for the Preparation of Submarine Sediments for Electron Microscopy.- 36 Observation Technique for Wet Clay Minerals Using Film-Sealed Environmental Cell Equipment Attached to High-Resolution Electron Microscope.- 37 Clay Fabric of Gassy Submarine Sediments.- 38 Objective Measurement and Classification of Microfabrics and Their Relationship to Physical Properties.- 39 Automatic Analysis of Microstructure of Cohesive Sediments.- 40 The Application of Image Analysis Techniques to Microstructure Studies in Geotechnical Engineering.- 41 Quantification of Clay Fabric: A Simple Technique.- 42 Measurements of Bond Energy of Clays and Ocean Wave Attenuation.- 43 Geoacoustic Properties of a Marine Silt.- 44 Sediment Shear Waves: A Comparison of In Situ and Laboratory Measurements.- 45 Geoacoustic Properties in the Near-Surface Sediment in Response to Periodic Deposition.- 46 Elasticity of Fine-Grained Abyssal Sediments, Brazil Basin, South Atlantic Ocean.- II Applied Clay Microstructure.- C. Applications: Present Requirements.- 47 Applications: Present Requirements, Waste Disposal, Containment, and Packing Material.- 48 Disposal of Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes into Clay-Rich Rocks.- 49 Preliminary Geotechnical Considerations of Borehole Facilities as Waste Repositories in Clay Deposits.- 50 Hydrocarbon Liquids and Clay Microstructure.- 51 Effects of Hydrothermal Treatment on the Engineering Properties, Microstructure, and Composition of Oilwell Cements.- 52 The Role of the Microstructure of Pacific Red Clays in Radioactive Waste Disposal.- 53 Influences on the Rheology of Marine Sediments Composed of Low-Activity Minerals.- 54 The Geotechnical Importance of Clay Flexibility.- 55 The Microfabric of Some Hong Kong Marine Soils.- 56 Application of Microstructure Classification of Marine Sediment to Engineering Geological Evaluation.- 57 Preliminary Geotechnical Evaluation of Deep Borehole Facilities for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Shales.- 58 Microstructural and Mineralogical Characterization of Selected Shales in Support of Nuclear Waste Repository Studies.- III Future Research Directions and Recommendations: Basic and Applied.- 59 Research Recommendations of the Clay Microstructure Workshop.