Metals and Alloys: Industrial Applications

Metals and Alloys: Industrial Applications

by Mark Anthony Benvenuto

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Overview

Metals and Alloys continues the series of graduate textbooks on Industrial Chemistry by Mark A. Benvenuto. It shows the essential industrial applications, processes and chemistry background for the extraction of metals, as well as the production and applications of alloys. The book discusses how large scale and minor processes affect every-day life, challenges in prevention and removal of waste by-products and illustrates selected chemical processes for which efforts have been made to improve and “green” industrial production of metals and alloys.

Sources for metals are sorted by metal and alloy and backed by basic chemical background information and process set up. Overviews on worldwide ore distribution, refined metal and alloy production numbers are another focus of the book.

  • Discusses sources, key processes and applications.
  • Connects what students learn in class to real, large-scale metals chemistry that makes modern life possible.
  • Intended for students, graduate students and beginners in the fiield of Chemistry, Chemical Process Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science.
  • Visit degruyter.com for more information on books by Mark A. Benvenuto: Industrial Chemistry (2013), Industrial Chemistry: For Advanced Students (2015) and Industrial Inorganic Chemistry (2015).

About the Author:

Mark Anthony Benvenuto

A Fellow of the American Chemical Society, he received his PhD in inorganic chemistry from the University of Virginia. After a post-doctoral fellowship at the Pennsylvania State University, he joined the University of Detroit Mercy, where he is now the Department Chairman and teaches an industrial chemistry course.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783110407846
Publisher: De Gruyter
Publication date: 06/06/2016
Series: De Gruyter Textbook Series
Pages: 165
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.45(h) x (d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

Mark Anthony Benvenuto, University of Detroit Mercy, Detroit, USA

Table of Contents

Preface v

1 Introduction and overview 1

1.1 Historic, ancient 1

1.2 Large-scale use 1

1.3 Eighteenth and nineteenth century discoveries 2

1.4 Modern, niche uses 2

1.5 Modern, major use metals 3

1.6 Recycling and re-use 3

2 Copper 5

2.1 Introduction 5

2.2 Refining and isolation 6

2.3 Uses 8

2.3.1 Piping 8

2.3.2 Wiring and machinery 8

2.3.3 Coinage 8

2.4 Bronze 10

2.5 Brass 10

2.6 Other alloys 11

2.7 Possible substitutes 11

2.8 Recycling 12

3 Tin 13

3.1 Introduction 13

3.2 Refining and isolation 13

3.3 Tin, uses and applications 15

3.3.1 Solders 15

3.3.2 Plating 15

3.3.3 Niobium-tin 16

3.3.4 Glass production 16

3.3.5 Tin in polyvinyl chloride 16

3.4 Possible substitutes 17

3.5 Recycling 17

4 Zinc 19

4.1 Introduction 19

4.2 Refining and isolation 19

4.3 Uses 21

4.3.1 Galvanizing 21

4.3.2 Nickel silver 21

4.3.3 Solders 22

4.3.4 Paint pigments 22

4.3.5 Sacrificial anodes 23

4.3.6 Batteries 23

4.4 Possible substitutes 23

4.5 Recycling 24

5 Pewter 25

5.1 Introduction 25

5.2 Production 25

5.3 History and traditional uses 26

5.4 Modern applications 26

5.5 Recycling 26

6 Gold 29

6.1 Introduction 29

6.2 Refining and isolation 29

6.3 The carat system - 18,14,12,10 Carat 33

6.4 Uses 33

6.4.1 Jewelry 33

6.4.2 Investment coins 34

6.4.3 Electronics 35

6.5 White gold 35

6.6 Possible substitutes 36

6.7 Recycling 36

7 Silver 37

7.1 Introduction 37

7.2 Retining and Isolation 38

7.3 Uses 39

7.3.1 Jewelry 39

7.3.2 Silverware 40

7.3.3 Investment coins 40

7.3.4 Photography 40

7.3.5 Batteries 41

7.3.6 Electronics 41

7.3.7 Ethylene oxide 41

7.4 Possible substitutes 42

7.5 Recycling 42

8 Iron and steel 43

8.1 Introduction 43

8.2 Ore sources 45

8.3 Steel production 47

8.4 Uses of iron and steel 50

8.5 By-product production 51

8.6 Recycling 52

9 Platinum group metals 55

9.1 Introduction 55

9.2 Sources, refining and isolation 55

9.3 Uses 58

9.3.1 Ruthenium 58

9.3.2 Osmium 59

9.3.3 Rhodium 59

9.3.4 Iridium 59

9.3.5 Palladium 60

9.3.6 Platinum 61

9.4 Possible substitutes 62

9.5 Recycling 62

10 Nickel 65

10.1 Introduction 65

10.2 Refining and isolation 66

10.3 Uses 67

10.3.1 Steels 67

10.3.2 Superalloys 67

10.3.3 Shape memory alloys 68

10.3.4 Plating 68

10.3.5 Nickels 68

10.4 Possible substitutes 69

10.5 Recycling 70

11 Aluminum 71

11.1 Introduction 71

11.2 Refining and isolation, the Hall-Heroult process 72

11.3 Uses 73

11.4 Possible substitutes 74

11.5 Recycling 75

12 Titanium 77

12.1 Introduction 77

12.2 Location and sources 77

12.3 Refining and isolation 79

12.3.1 The Kroll process 79

12.3.2 The Hunter process 80

12.4 Uses 80

12.4.1 High strength alloys 80

12.4.2 Pigments, titanium white or titanium dioxide 81

12.5 Possible substitutes 81

12.6 Recycling 82

13 Magnesium 83

13.1 Introduction 83

13.2 Refining and isolation 83

13.3 Uses 85

13.3.1 Elemental magnesium 85

13.3.2 Magnesium-aluminum alloys 86

13.3.3 Castings 86

13.3.4 Automotive 87

13.3.5 Aerospace 87

13.3.6 Electronic 87

13.4 Possible substitutes 88

13.5 Recycling 88

14 Uranium and thorium 89

14.1 Introduction 89

14.2 Refining and isolation 89

14.2.1 Uranium isolation and refining 89

14.2.2 Thorium isolation and refining 91

14.3.1 Power generation 93

14.3.2 Weaponry 93

14.3.3 Compounds and uses 93

14.4 Possible substitutes 94

14.5 Recycling 94

15 Americium 97

15.1 Introduction 97

15.2 Refining and isolation 97

15.3 Uses 98

15.3.1 Smoke detectors 98

15.3.2 Other uses 98

15.4 Recycling 99

16 Mercury 101

16.1 Introduction 101

16.2 Refining and isolation 101

16.3 Uses 103

16.3.1 Chlor-alkali process 103

16.3.2 Barometers and thermometers 104

16.3.3 Amalgams and compounds 104

16.4 Possible substitutes 104

16.5 Recycling 105

17 Lanthanides 107

17.1 Introduction 107

17.2 Refining and isolation 107

17.3 Uses 112

17.3.1 Catalysts 113

17.3.2 Magnets, Nd2Fe14B, plus SmCo5 and Sm2Co17 113

17.3.3 Alloys 114

17.3.4 Heavy rare earth element uses 115

17.4 Possible substitutes 115

17.5 Recycling 115

18 Lead 117

18.1 Introduction 117

18.2 History 117

18.3 Refining and isolation 118

18.4 Uses 121

18.4.1 Batteries 121

15.4.1 Construction material 121

18.4.1 Ammunition, hunting and military 122

18.4.2 Alloys 122

18.5 Possible substitutes 122

18.6 Recycling 122

19 Tungsten 125

19.1 Introduction 125

19.2 Refining and isolation 129

19.3 Uses 130

19.3.1 Carbide parts 130

19.3.2 High-strength alloys 131

19.4 Possible substitutes 131

19.5 Recycling 131

20 Tantalum and niobium 133

20.1 Introduction 133

20.2 Refining and isolation 135

20.3 Uses 136

20.3.1 Major uses 136

20.3.2 Wiring and magnets 137

20.3.3 Niobium coinage 137

20.4 Possible substitutes 137

20.5 Recycling 138

21 Sodium 139

21.1 Introduction 139

21.2 Refining and isolation 140

21.2.1 Downs cell 140

21.2.2 Chlor-alkali process 141

21.3 Uses 141

21.3.1 Sodium borohydride 142

21.3.2 Sodium azide, NaN3 142

21.3.3 Triphenylphosphine, P(C6H5)3 143

21.3.4 Reactor moderator material 143

21.3.5 Alloying agent 143

21.5.1 Sodium vapor lamps 143

21.4 Recycling 144

22 Lithium 145

22.1 Introduction 145

22.2 Refining and isolation 145

22.3 Uses 146

22.3.1 Lightweight alloys 147

22.3.2 Batteries 147

22.4 Possible substitutes 148

22.5 Recycling 148

Index 151

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