Pub. Date:
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Marine Benthic Vegetation: Recent Changes and the Effects of Eutrophication / Edition 1

Marine Benthic Vegetation: Recent Changes and the Effects of Eutrophication / Edition 1

by Winfried Schramm, Pieter N. NienhuisWinfried Schramm


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Increasing amounts of various types of wastes and pollutants including nutrients enter the coastal waters via rivers, direct discharges from land drainage systems, diffuse land runoff, dumping and via the atmosphere. This has led to coastal eutrophication and in extreme cases to hypertrophication. Until recently, coastal eutrophication and the resulting effects on marine macrophytes were mainly treated as local short-term problems. However, the local nearshore problems developed into overall coastal and inshore phenomena, and recently we have been facing coastal eutrophication problems on a global scale. This book is the first comprehensive document, systematically covering the entire coastline of Europe on the effects of eutrophication on the marine benthic vegetation.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783540581062
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 02/12/2002
Series: Ecological Studies , #123
Edition description: 1996
Pages: 473
Product dimensions: 6.14(w) x 9.21(h) x 0.36(d)

Table of Contents

A General Aspects.- 1 The Occurrence of “Green Tides” — a Review.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Eutrophication — The Background.- 1.3 Secondary Effects of Nutrient-Carrying Waters.- 1.4 Eutrophication — Influence on Marine Benthic Algae.- 1.5 Characteristics of Green Tide Forming Algae.- 1.6 Impact of Green Tides.- 1.7 Treatment of Green Tides.- References.- 2 The Management of Eutrophicated Waters.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Eutrophication.- 2.2.1 Eutrophication, Dystrophication and Mediators.- 2.3 Eutrophication in European Sea Bodies.- 2.4 Relationship Eutrophication — Environment.- 2.5 Impact of Algal Pollution.- 2.6 Managing the Algal Problem.- 2.7 Comprehensive Management.- 2.8 Conclusion.- References.- 3 Coastal Eutrophication and Marine Benthic Vegetation: A Model Analysis.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Materials and Methods.- 3.2.1 Areas of Study.- 3.2.2 Mass Balance Analysis.- 3.3 Results.- 3.3.1 Model Calibration.- 3.3.2 Carbon and Nitrogen Budgets.- 3.3.3 Contribution of Macrophytes to Nitrogen Cycling.- 3.4 Discussion.- 3.4.1 Light Climate.- 3.4.2 Storage Capacity for Nutrients.- 3.4.3 Nutrients Supply to Macroalgae by Flushing.- 3.4.4 Control of Phytoplankton by Grazing and Flushing.- 3.4.5 Conclusions.- References.- 4 Aquaculture Methods for Use in Managing Eutrophicated Waters.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 The “Green Tide” Phenomenon.- 4.3 Macroalgal Cultivation.- 4.3.1 Porphyra (“nori”) Cultivation.- 4.3.2 Kelp Species, e.g. Laminaria, Undaria.- 4.3.3 Gracilaria and Other Agarophytes.- 4.3.4 Additional Alternatives.- 4.4 Nutrient Removal.- 4.5 Conclusion.- References.- B Regional Observations and Investigations.- 5 The Baltic Sea and Its Transition Zones.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Physical and Chemical Characterization.- 5.3 Biota and Plant Communities.- 5.4 Eutrophication and Pollution Situation.- 5.5 Changes in the Phytobenthos and Possible Causes.- 5.6 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 6 The Northern Atlantic Coasts (The Swedish West Coast, Norway and Iceland).- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 The Swedish West Coast.- 6.2.1 The Swedish Kattegat Coast.- 6.2.2 The Swedish Skagerrak Coast.- 6.3 The Border Area Between Sweden and Norway.- 6.3.1 The Hvaler Area.- 6.3.2 The Idefjorden Area.- 6.4 The Norwegian South and Southwest Coasts.- 6.4.1 The Oslo Fjord.- 6.4.2 Other Areas Along the South and Southwest Coasts.- 6.5 The Norwegian West and North Coasts.- 6.6 Iceland.- References.- B.I The North Sea and the Atlantic Coasts of Western and Southern Europe.- 7 The North Sea Coasts of Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Eutrophication Along the North Sea Coasts.- 7.2.1 Denmark and the Outer Baltic.- 7.2.2 Germany.- 7.2.3 The Netherlands.- 7.2.4 Belgium.- 7.3 Conclusions.- References.- 8 The British Isles.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Sources of Nutrients.- 8.3 Distribution of “Eutrophicated” Localities.- 8.4 Effect of “Eutrophication” on Marine Benthic Algal Communities.- 8.5 Marine Benthic Algae Associated with “Eutrophicated” Waters.- 8.6 Effect of Excessive Growth of Algae.- References.- 9 The French Atlantic Coasts.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Green Tides of Brittany Coasts.- 9.2.1 Production Mechanism of Green Tides.- 9.2.2 Fighting Means and Associated Research Programs.- 9.3 Other Cases of Eutrophication Along the French Coast.- 9.3.1 The Bay of Arcachon.- 9.3.2 Eutrophication and Salt Marshes.- References.- 10 Spanish Atlantic Coasts.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Macroalgal Proliferation Along the Spanish Atlantic Coasts.- 10.3 The Ulvaceae of Palmones River Estuary: A Case Study of Green Algal Accumulation.- 10.4 Trends, Some Historical References and Comparison of Data.- References.- 11 Portugal.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Characterization of Selected Estuaries and Lagoons.- 11.2.1 Ria de Aveiro Lagoon.- 11.2.2 Sado Estuary.- 11.2.3 Ria Formosa Lagoon.- 11.3 Symptoms of Eutrophication and Effects on Benthic Vegetation.- 11.4 Conclusions.- References.- B.II The Mediterranean.- 12 The Spanish Mediterranean Coasts.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Green Algal Communities and Proliferation.- 12.3 Green Algal Proliferations: A Case Study.- 12.4 Green Tides in the Mediterranean: A Conceptual Framework and Future Goals.- References.- 13 France — The Mediterranean Lagoons.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Eutrophication and Macrophyte Community Structure in Corsican Lagoons.- 13.2.1 Characteristics of the Lagoons and Study Methods.- 13.2.2 The Shores of Corsican Lagoons (1975–1980).- 13.2.3 The Urbino Basin (Western Shore) with Respect to the Agricultural Exploitation of the Drainage Basins (1980–1990).- 13.3 Macrophytic Production and Eutrophication.- 13.3.1 Languedocian Lagoons.- Thau Lagoon.- Prévost Lagoon.- 13.3.2 Example of the Corsican Lagoon Biguglia.- 13.4 General Conclusion.- References.- 14 Italy — The Orbetello Lagoon and the Tuscan Coast.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 The Orbetello Lagoon.- 14.2.1 Physicochemical Parameters.- 14.2.2 Economic Activities and Eutrophication.- 14.2.3 Benthic Vegetation.- 14.2.4 Seasonal Environmental Events.- 14.2.5 Adopted Ways of Management.- 14.3 Marine Coastal Areas Around the Orbetello Lagoon.- References.- 15 Italy — The Lagoon of Venice.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 The Lagoon Morphology and Hydrography.- 15.3 Temporal Changes of Algal Typology and Associations.- 15.4 Macroalgal Production and Nutrient Cycling.- 15.5 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 16 The Northern Adriatic Sea.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 Study Area and Ecological Conditions.- 16.3 The Benthic Algal Vegetation of Undisturbed Sites.- 16.4 Changes of the Benthic Algal Vegetation Under the Influence of Eutrophication.- 16.5 Number of Species.- 16.6 Algal Biomass.- 16.7 Possible Causes for the Extinction of Fucoids in the Eutrophicated Habitats.- 16.8 Conclusions.- References.- 17 Greece.- 17.1 Introduction.- 17.2 Marine Vegetation and Eutrophication in Greece.- 17.3 The Gulf of Thessaloniki.- 17.4 Effects of Eutrophication: Algal Typology and Community Evaluation.- 17.5 Conclusions.- References.- 18 Turkey.- 18.1 Introduction.- 18.2 Hydrological and Hydrochemical Characteristics of Turkish Seas.- 18.2.1 The Black Sea.- 18.2.2 The Sea of Marmara.- 18.2.3 The Aegean Sea.- 18.2.4 The Turkish Mediterranean.- 18.3 The Benthic Flora of Turkish Seas and Possible Effects of Eutrophication and Pollution.- References.- B. III The Black Sea.- 19 The Black Sea.- 19.1 Hydrological and Chemical Characterization of the Black Sea.- 19.2 Eutrophication and Pollution in Romanian Coastal Waters.- 19.3 The Effects of Eutrophication on Phytobenthic Communities.- 19.3.1 The Cystoseira Belt.- 19.3.2 The Phyllophora Fields.- 19.4 Summary.- References.- Conclusions.- References.- Species Index.

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