Life Chances in Turkey: Expanding Opportunities for the Next Generation

Life Chances in Turkey: Expanding Opportunities for the Next Generation




Children in Turkey have vastly different odds of success. Their paths are affected by factors over which they have no control, such as how wealthy or educated their parents-and even grandparents-are. By investing in its children and youth, Turkey can create a virtuous cycle whereby these children and youth contribute more to their country's economic growth and social development, helping to realize its ambitious goals.

Written to contribute to the public policy debate, Life Chances in Turkey: Expanding Opportunities for the Next Generation notes that girls are at a particular disadvantage. Compared with a boy born to well-off, highly educated parents in one of the urban centers of the country's west, a girl born in a remote eastern village to poor parents with primary school degrees is four times as likely to suffer from low birth weight, one-third as likely to be immunized, and ten times a likely to have her growth stunted as a result of malnutrition. She has a one-in-five chance of completing high school, whereas the boy will likely attend college.

With child development trajectories thus diverging early in life, pro-equity policies should focus on reaching the most disadvantaged children early, ideally before birth. Turkey, with the active involvement of nongovernmental organizations, has piloted a number of highly successful programs to reach and support disadvantaged children. But it can do more: only 6 percent of the country's total public social spending reaches children below the age of six. About four times more is spent on a middle-aged or elderly person than on a child.

Life Chances finds that if today's under-40 Turkish adults had all benefited from one year of preschool education when they were 6 years old, family incomes could be up to 8 percent higher, one-tenth of poor families would not live in poverty today, and about 9 percent more women-in other words, millions-could be working or looking actively for a job.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780821384008
Publisher: Bernan Distribution
Publication date: 06/16/2010
Series: Directions in Development
Pages: 112
Product dimensions: 5.80(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.40(d)

Table of Contents

Foreword ix

Acknowledgments xi

Abbreviations xiii

Overview 1

The State of Equality of Opportunities in Turkey 2

From Grandparents to Grandchildren 3

Child Development and Child Risks 5

Expanding Opportunities for the Next Generation 7

Reflections 10

Notes 11

References 11

Chapter 1 Introduction 13

Note 15

Chapter 2 Equity Aspirations 17

Notes 21

References 21

Chapter 3 The State of Equality of Opportunity in Turkey 23

Inequality of Economic Opportunity 24

Inequality of Opportunity for Educational Achievement 30

Grandparents and Grandchildren 31

Notes 36

References 37

Chapter 4 Child Development and Child Risks 39

Child Poverty 39

Child Poverty and Opportunity Groups 41

International Comparisons 46

Notes 48

References 48

Chapter 5 Expanding Opportunities for the Next Generation: Early Childhood Development Policies 51

ECD: Why and How? 52

ECD Policies and Programs in Turkey 54

Private and Community Provision 55

Governance and Coordination 57

Coverage and Reach among Disadvantaged Children 57

Public Funding 60

Early Childhood Development Benefits 63

Notes 67

References 69

Chapter 6 Reflections 71

Note 73

Reference 73

Technical Appendix 75

References 86

Index 87


5.1 International Benchmarking League Table for Early Childhood Development 53

5.2 Community-Based ECD Provision in Turkey 56

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