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SAGE Publications
Key Ideas in Criminology and Criminal Justice / Edition 1

Key Ideas in Criminology and Criminal Justice / Edition 1

by Travis C. PrattTravis C. Pratt
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Key Ideas in Criminology and Criminal Justice is an innovative, fascinating treatment of some of the seminal theories in criminology and key policies in criminal justice, offering a detailed and nuanced picture of these core ideas. With a fluid, accessible, and lively writing style, this brief text is organized around major theories, ideas, and movements that mark a turning point in the field, and concludes with a discussion of the future of criminology and criminal justice. Readers will learn about the most salient criminological and criminal justice research and understand its influence on theory and policy. They will also understand the surrounding socio-political conditions from which the ideas sprang and the style and manner in which they weredisseminated , both of which helped these scholarly contributions become cornerstones in the fields of criminology and criminal justice.


Product Details

ISBN-13: 2901412970142
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Publication date: 10/20/2010
Edition description: NE
Pages: 208
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

Travis C. Pratt received his degrees from Clark College, Washington State University (BA, Political Science; MA, Criminal Justice), and the University of Cincinnati (Ph D, Criminal Justice). He has served on the faculty of the School of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University-Newark, was the Director of the Program in Criminal Justice at Washington State University, and a Professor the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University. He is currently a Fellow with the University of Cincinnati Corrections Institute.

His research and publications focus primarily on structural and integrated theories of crime and delinquency (including macro-level, multilevel, and individual-level approaches to the study of criminal/deviant behavior) and correctional policy (both institutional and community corrections). He has published over 100 articles that have appeared in the leading peer-reviewed journals in the field, including: Crime and Justice: A Review of Research; Criminology; Journal of Youth and Adolescence; Journal of Pediatrics; Journal of Quantitative Criminology; Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency; and, Justice Quarterly. He received the 2006 Ruth Shonle Cavan Outstanding Young Scholar Award from the American Society of Criminology for his research and scholarship.

Jacinta M. Gau, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of Central Florida. She received her doctorate from Washington State University in 2008. Her primary areas of research are policing and criminal justice policy, and she has a strong quantitative background. Dr. Gau’s work has appeared in journals such as Justice Quarterly, British Journal of Criminology, Criminal Justice and Behavior, Crime & Delinquency, Criminology & Public Policy, Police Quarterly, Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, and the Journal of Criminal Justice Education. In addition to Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice, she is author of Criminal Justice Policy: Origins and Effectiveness (Oxford University Press) and co-author of Key Ideas in Criminology and Criminal Justice (SAGE Publications). Additionally, she co-edits Race and Justice: An International Journal, published by SAGE.

Travis W. Franklin earned his Ph.D. in criminal justice from Washington State University in 2008 and is currently an assistant professor in the College of Criminal Justice at Sam Houston State University. His research interests focus on the effects of race and ethnicity on the processing of offenders through criminal courts, violence in correctional institutions, the causes and correlates of fear of crime, and biological predictors of crime and delinquency. His recent work has appeared in Criminal Justice and Behavior, Journal of Criminal Justice, Feminist Criminology, and Social Justice Research.

Table of Contents

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xv

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Chapter 2 Key Idea: Rational Offending and Rational Punishment 5

The Social Context of Criminal Punishment 6

Beccaria's Proposal 8

Why It Caught On 11

Influence: The Rise of the Classical School of Criminology 13

Empirical Analyses and Critiques of Free Will, Rationality, and Deterrence 15

Conclusion 17

Discussion Questions 18

References 18

Chapter 3 Key Idea: The Science of Criminal Behavior 23

The Social Context: A Time Without Criminology 24

The Road to Lombroso 24

Lombroso and the Body of the Criminal 25

The Dissemination of Lombroso's Theories 29

Criticisms of Lombroso's Theories 30

Lombroso's Influence 32

Europe 33

The United States 33

Conclusion 37

Discussion Questions 37

References 38

Chapter 4 Key Idea: Understanding Crime and Society 41

The Social Context of the Early Twentieth Century 42

Social Disorganization and Anomie/Strain Theories 43

Social Disorganization Theory 43

Merton's Anomie/Strain Theory 44

Rejecting Individualism 46

The Legacy of Anomie/Strain and Social Disorganization Theories 47

Conclusion 50

Discussion Questions 51

References 51

Chapter 5 Key Idea: Hirschi's Social Bond/Social Control Theory 55

The Social Context of the 1960s 56

Social Bond/Social Control Theory 57

The Marketing of Social Bond/Social Control Theory 60

Reason #1 A New Approach to Theory Construction 61

Reason #2 Operationalizing Theories 62

Reason #3 Theoretical "Fight Club" 63

The Legacy of Social Bond/Social Control Theory 64

Conclusion 66

Discussion Questions 67

References 67

Chapter 6 Key Idea: Rehabilitation Is Dead 71

The Martinson Report 72

Social Context 75

Getting the Word Out 79

The Influence of the Martinson Report 81

Conclusion 83

Discussion Questions 84

References 84

Chapter 7 Key Idea: Crime Control Through Selective Incapacitation 87

The Context: Criminology, Criminal Justice Policy, and Society in the 1970s 88

Thinking About Crime James Q. Wilson 90

Why It Caught On 92

Selective Incapacitation's Effect on Criminal Justice and Criminology: Empirical Tests, Empirical Critiques, and Ethical Dilemmas 94

Conclusion 98

Discussion Questions 99

References 99

Chapter 8 Key Idea: The Police Can Control Crime 103

The Context of Criminology and Policing 104

Broken Windows Theory: Revamping the Police Role 105

How Broken Windows Theory Reached Its Audience 108

The Influence of Broken Windows Theory 109

Policing, Broken Windows Style 109

The Economics of Order Maintenance: The Rise of the Business Improvement District 111

Empirical Tests and Critiques of Broken Windows Theory and Policing 112

Conclusion 114

Discussion Questions 114

References 115

Chapter 9 Key Idea: The War on Drugs 121

Winning the War is Easy-Just Say No! 122

The 1980s in Context 125

The Magic in "Just Say No" 127

The Impact of "Just Say No" 129

Conclusion 131

Discussion Questions 131

References 132

Chapter 10 Key Idea: Rehabilitation-Not Dead Yet 135

The Principles of Risk, Need, and Responsivity 136

Risk 139

Need 139

Responsivity 140

Putting the Principles to the Test 141

Social Context 142

Disseminating the Principles of Effective Rehabilitation 145

The Impact of Meta-Analysis and the Principles of Effective Rehabilitation 147

Conclusion 148

Discussion Questions 150

References 150

Chapter 11 Key Idea: Crime and the Life Course 153

The Criminological Context of the Early 1990s 154

Life Course Theories in Criminology 156

Stability or Change: Moffitt's Dual Taxonomy 156

Stability and Change: Sampson and Laub's Theory of Age-Graded Informal Social Control 157

Constructing Testable Theories 159

Life Course Theory Catches On 160

Conclusion 162

Discussion Questions 163

References 163

Chapter 12 Looking Back, Looking Forward: Conclusions 169

Looking Back: The Glaring Omissions? 170

Social Learning Theory 170

Routine Activity Theory 173

The Legitimate Contenders 175

Labeling Theory 175

Discipline and Punish Michel Foucault 176

Looking Forward: The Future of Criminology and Criminal Justice 176

Reintegrate Shaming 177

Biology Redux 177

Conclusion 178

Discussion Questions 179

References 179

Name Index 183

Subject Index 185

About the Authors 189

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