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Recently a number of International Oil Companies have invested into biofuels technology. Various strategic and commercial factors as well as the technological and scientific factors are involved in this investment decision. To analyse the aspects that led to these decisions, the author Johannes Kolmar employed PESTLE, Five-Forces and Value Chain analysis as well as an evaluation of next generation biofuel technologies. The PESTLE framework was used to analyse the macroenvironment of oil companies and Five Forces analysis to analyse the biofuels industry. Comparative Value Chain analysis was used to analyse the extent of synergies between oil and biofuel companies. In addition, the technological developments are evaluated. Specifically, a patent from Synthetic Genomics Inc. is used exemplarily to illustrate next generation biofuel technologies. In view of the interdisciplinary nature of this work, it hopes to interest a varied audience at the interface of science and business; from policy makers in government agencies or nongovernmental organisations to decision makers in industry and consultants.