India's Reforms: How they Produced Inclusive Growth

India's Reforms: How they Produced Inclusive Growth


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When India embraced systematic economic reforms in 1991 and began opening its economy to both domestic and foreign competition, critics argued that they had contributed little to the acceleration of economic growth. Their argument had rested on the claim that growth in the 1990s was no faster than in the 1980s. This claim was quickly refuted on the grounds that when properly evaluated, growth had indeed accelerated in the 1990s and more importantly, while reforms had been made systematic in 1991, they had actually begun much earlier in the late 1970s. Subsequently, the reforms of the late 1990s and early 2000s have led to a jump in the growth rate from six percent in the 1990s to eight to nine percent beginning in 2003. The reforms have also led to a major structural change in the economy: the trade to GDP ratio has tripled since 1991, there has been a gigantic expansion of foreign investment in India, and sectors such as telecommunications, airlines, and automobiles have expanded at rates much higher than at any time in the past. This dramatic turnaround has led critics to shift ground. They now argue that opening the economy to trade has hurt the poor; that rapid growth is leaving socially disadvantaged groups behind; and that reforms have led to increased inequality. The essays in this volume take these challenges head-on. They use large-scale sample surveys and other data to systematically address each of the arguments.

India's Reforms is the first volume in the series Studies in Indian Economic Policies, edited by Jagdish Bhagwati and Arvind Panagariya and published by OUP. It contains the first set of five original papers produced under the auspices of the Columbia Program on Indian Economic Policies housed in the School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA) and the Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy (ISERP).

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780199915187
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Publication date: 04/26/2012
Series: Studies in Indian Economic Policies
Pages: 312
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Jagdish Bhagwati, University Professor at Columbia University and Senior Fellow in International Economics at the Council on Foreign Relations, is a prominent economist. He has made pioneering contributions to the study of development, globalization, international trade, foreign aid, and immigration. He also writes frequently for leading media worldwide. He has served in many advisory roles, including at the GATT as Economic Policy Adviser to Director General Arthur Dunkel and at the UN to Secretary General Kofi Annan on Globalization and on NEPAD Process in Africa. He works with many NGOs, including Human Rights Watch.

Arvind Panagariya is Professor of Economics & Jagdish Bhagwati Professor of Indian Political Economy at Columbia University and a Non-resident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution. He has written and edited ten books. His last book, India: The Emerging Giant (OUP, 2008) has been described as the 'definitive book on the Indian economy'. Panagariya writes a monthly column in The Economic Times, India's top financial daily.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
Jagdish Bhagwati and Arvind Panagariya

Part I: Reforms and Democracy

2. Views from the Indian Electorate: Satisfactions and Dissatisfactions with Democracy, Politics and the Economy
Alfred Stepan

3. Economic Reforms and Electoral Outcomes
Poonam Gupta and Arvind Panagariya

Part II: Trade, Poverty and Inequality

4. Trade Liberalization and Poverty Reduction: New Evidence from Indian States
J. Cain, Rana Hasan and Devashish Mitra

5. Growth, Openness and the Socially Disadvantaged
Megha Mukim and Arvind Panagariya

6. Trade and Inequality in India
Pravin Krishna, Guru Sethupathy

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