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How the Brain Learns Mathematics / Edition 1 available in Paperback

- ISBN-10:
- 1412953065
- ISBN-13:
- 9781412953061
- Pub. Date:
- 09/19/2007
- Publisher:
- SAGE Publications

## Paperback

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## Overview

To reach all your math students, use your brain—and theirs, too!

This updated bestseller takes readers to the next level with new brain-friendly strategies backed by the latest research and even more ways to seamlessly incorporate what you learn about your students’ developing minds into your math classroom. Discover the cognitive mechanisms for learning math, explore factors that contribute to learning difficulties, and follow a four-step teaching model that relates classroom experience to real-world applications. Features include:

- New strategies for motivating adolescents
- Integration of the arts into mathematics instruction
- New information on how technology affects attention and memory
- Expanded sections on number sense and ELL instruction
- More than 160 new references

## Product Details

ISBN-13: | 9781412953061 |
---|---|

Publisher: | SAGE Publications |

Publication date: | 09/19/2007 |

Edition description: | Older Edition |

Pages: | 264 |

Product dimensions: | 8.50(w) x 11.00(h) x (d) |

## About the Author

David A. Sousa, Ed D, is an international consultant in educational neuroscience and author of more than a dozen books that translate brain research into strategies for improving learning. He has presented to more than 200,000 educators across the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and Asia. He has taught high school chemistry and served in administrative positions, including superintendent of schools. He was an adjunct professor of education at Seton Hall University and a visiting lecturer at Rutgers University. Dr. Sousa has edited science books and published dozens of articles in leading journals. His books have been published in French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic, Korean, and several other languages. He is past president of the National Staff Development Council (now Learning Forward) and has received honorary degrees and awards for his commitment to research, professional development, and science education. He has appeared on NBC’s Today Show and National Public Radio to discuss his work with schools using brain research.

## Table of Contents

About the Author

Introduction

Everyone Can Do Mathematics

Why is Learning Mathematics So Hard?

Response From Mathematics Educators

About This Book

Questions This Book Will Answer

Chapter Contents

Other Helpful Tools

Assessing Your Current Knowledge of How We Learn Mathematics

What's Coming?

1. Developing Number Sense

Babies Can Count

What Is Number Sense?

Animals Also Have Number Sense

Why Do We Have Number Sense?

Piaget and Number Sense

Learning to Count

Subitizing

Counting

How Language Affects Counting

The Mental Number Line

Expanded Notions of Number Sense

Can We Teach Number Sense?

Quantities to Words to Symbols

Gardner’s Logical/Mathematical Intelligence

What’s Coming?

Reflections on Chapter 1

2. Learning to Calculate

Development of Conceptual Structures

Structures in Four-Year-Olds

Structures in Six-Year-Olds

Structures in Eight-Year-Olds

Structures in Ten-Year-Olds

Dealing With Multiplication

Why Are Multiplication Tables Difficult to Learn?

Multiplication and Memory

Is the Way We Teach the Multiplication Tables Intuitive?

The Impact of Language on Learning Multiplication

Do the Multiplication Tables Help or Hinder?

What’s Coming?

Reflections on Chapter 2

3. Reviewing the Elements of Learning

Learning and Remembering

Memory Systems

Rehearsal Enhances Memory

The Importance of Meaning

How Will the Learning Be Stored?

When Should New Learning Be Presented in a Lesson?

Does Practice Make Perfect?

Include Writing Activities

Gender Differences in Mathematics

Consider Learning Styles

Consider Teaching Styles

How Do You Think About Mathematics?

What’s Coming?

Reflections on Chapter 3

4. Teaching Mathematics to the Preschool and Kindergarten Brain

Should Preschoolers Learn Mathematics at All?

Assessing Students’ Number Sense

Preschoolers’ Social and Emotional Behavior

What Mathematics Should Preschoolers Learn?

Preschool and Kindergarten Instructional Suggestions

General Guidelines

Suggestions for Teaching Subitizing

Learning to Count

An Easier Counting System

Teacher Talk Improves Number Knowledge

Questioning

Developing Sorting and Classifying Skills

What’s Coming?

Reflections on Chapter 4

5. Teaching Mathematics to the Preadolescent Brain

What Is the Preadolescent Brain?

How Nature Influences the Growing Brain

Environment Influences on the Young Brain

Teaching for Meaning

Using Cognitive Closure to Remember Meaning

What Content Should We Be Teaching?

Teaching Process Skills

Does the Lesson Enhance Number Sense?

Does the Lesson Deal With Estimation?

From Memorization to Understanding

Multiplication With Understanding

Does the Lesson Develop Mathematical Reasoning?

Using Practice Effectively With Young Students

Graphic Organizers

Don’t Forget the Technology

What’s Coming?

Reflections on Chapter 5

6. Teaching Mathematics to the Adolescent Brain

What Is the Adolescent Brain?

Overworking the Frontal Lobes

The Search for Novelty

Learning Styles and Mathematics Curriculum

Qualitative Versus Quantitative Learning Styles

Developing Mathematical Reasoning

Instructional Choices in Mathematics

Graphic Organizers

Interpreting Word Problems

Making Mathematics Meaningful to Teenagers

What’s Coming?

Reflections on Chapter 6

7. Recognizing and Addressing Mathematics Difficulties

Detecting Mathematics Difficulties

Determining the Nature of the Problem

Diagnostic Tools

Environmental Factors

Student Attitudes About Mathematics

Fear of Mathematics (Math Anxiety)

Neurological and Other Factors

Dyscalculia

Addressing Mathematics Difficulties

Research Findings

The Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract Approach

Using Process Mnemonics

Numeracy Intervention Process

Students With Nonverbal Learning Disability

Students With Both Mathematics and Reading Difficulties

Other Considerations

What’s Coming?

Reflections on Chapter 7

8. Putting It All Together: Planning Lessons in Pre K–12 Mathematics

What Is Mathematics?

Questions to Ask When Planning Lessons

Is the Lesson Memory-Compatible?

Does the Lesson Include Cognitive Closure?

Will the Primacy-Recency Effect Be Taken Into Account?

What About Practice?

What Writing Will Be Involved?

Are Multiple Intelligences Being Addressed?

Does the Lesson Provide for Differentiation?

Simplified Instructional Model

Conclusion

Reflections on Chapter 8

Glossary

References

Resources

Index