Pub. Date:
National Academies Press


Current price is , Original price is $49.95. You

Temporarily Out of Stock Online

Please check back later for updated availability.


There are many reasons to be curious about the way people learn, and the past several decades have seen an explosion of research that has important implications for individual learning, schooling, workforce training, and policy.

In 2000, How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition was published and its influence has been wide and deep. The report summarized insights on the nature of learning in school-aged children; described principles for the design of effective learning environments; and provided examples of how that could be implemented in the classroom.

Since then, researchers have continued to investigate the nature of learning and have generated new findings related to the neurological processes involved in learning, individual and cultural variability related to learning, and educational technologies. In addition to expanding scientific understanding of the mechanisms of learning and how the brain adapts throughout the lifespan, there have been important discoveries about influences on learning, particularly sociocultural factors and the structure of learning environments.

How People Learn II: Learners, Contexts, and Cultures provides a much-needed update incorporating insights gained from this research over the past decade. The book expands on the foundation laid out in the 2000 report and takes an in-depth look at the constellation of influences that affect individual learning. How People Learn II will become an indispensable resource to understand learning throughout the lifespan for educators of students and adults.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780309459648
Publisher: National Academies Press
Publication date: 10/27/2018
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 346
Sales rank: 441,624
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

Summary 1

1 Introduction 11

Charge to the Committee 12

Contributions of HPL I 14

Interpreting the Charge 16

Gathering Evidence to Address the Charge 16

Treatment of Evidence 18

Guide to This Report 20

2 Context and Culture 21

The Cultural Nature of Learning 22

Defining Culture 22

The Role of Culture in Learning and Development 24

Learning as Social Activity 26

The Dynamic Interaction of Culture, Biology, and Context 27

Social and Emotional Influences 29

Physical Influences 30

Conclusion 33

3 Types of Learning and the Developing Brain 35

Types of Learning 35

Three Learning Scenarios 36

Basic Types of Learning 38

Integrating Types of Learning 55

Learning and the Brain 55

Prenatal and Lifelong Brain Development and Maturation 56

Brain Adaptation in Response to Learning 59

Evidence of Learning-Related Changes in the Brain Throughout the Life Span 62

Conclusions 67

4 Processes That Support Learning 69

Orchestrating Learning 70

Executive Function 70

Self-Regulation of Learning 72

Memory 74

Reconstructing Memories 74

Working and Long-Term Memory 77

Memory for Episodes of Learning 79

Conclusions 83

5 Knowledge and Reasoning 85

Building a Knowledge Base 86

Knowledge and Expertise 90

Benefits of Expertise 90

Bias as a Natural Side Effect of Knowledge 91

Knowledge Integration and Reasoning 93

Inferential Reasoning 93

Age-Related Changes in Knowledge and Reasoning 94

Effects of Culture on Reasoning 96

Strategies to Support Learning 97

Strategies for Knowledge Retention 98

Strategies for Understanding and Integration 101

Conclusions 106

6 Motivation to Learn 109

Theoretical Perspectives 110

Learners' Beliefs and Values 111

Self-Efficacy 111

Values 113

Interest 113

Intrinsic Motivation 115

External Rewards 115

Effects of Choice 117

The Importance of Goals 117

Types of Goals 118

Influence of Teachers on Learners' Goals 120

Learning Goals and Other Goals 121

Future Identities and Long-Term Persistence 122

Social and Cultural Influences on Motivation 124

Cross-Cultural Differences in Learners' Self-Construals 124

Social Identity and Motivation Processes 126

Stereotype Threat 127

Interventions to Improve Motivation 131

Conclusions 132

7 Implications for Learning in School 135

Culture and Learning in School 136

School and Classroom Contexts 137

Shifting from "Deficit" to "Asset" Models 140

Discipline-Specific Learning 143

Mathematics 144

Science 145

History 146

Engaging and Empowering Learners 148

Self-Regulated Learning 149

Instructional Approaches for Engaging the Learner 151

Assessing Learning 153

Providing Feedback to Learners 154

Connecting Assessment to Evidence about How Students Learn 155

Conclusions 160

8 Digital Technology 163

Aligning Technologies with Learning Goals 164

Affordances of Learning Technologies 164

Learning Through Repetition 166

Deeper Learning with Models 167

Collaborative and Cooperative Learning 169

Technology-Supported Self-Regulated Learning 170

Technologies that Stimulate Active Learning 172

Learning Through Game Play 172

Leveraging Stories and Favorite Characters 173

Empowering Learners as Producers and Creators 175

Making 176

Embodied Cognition 177

Conversational Agents 179

Technologies for Instruction 180

Linking Formal and Informal Learning 180

Orchestrating Instruction 181

Writing Instruction 183

Opportunities and Challenges 184

Digital Dashboards 184

Distance Learning 185

Mobile Personal Devices 186

Problematic Features of Technology 187

Universal Design 189

Technology for Learning in Later Life 190

The Digital Divide 193

A Systematic Approach to Implementation 194

Conclusions 196

9 Learning Across the Life Span 197

Changes That Occur with Age 198

Reasoning and Knowledge 198

Motivation for Learning 199

Learning Activities and Environments 200

Cognitive Abilities 202

Learning Disabilities 203

Causes of Learning Disabilities 204

Reading Disabilities 205

Mathematics Disabilities 206

Learning Disabilities in Adults 207

Adult Literacy 208

Interventions 209

Postsecondary Educational Experiences 211

Workforce Training 213

Determining Whether People Learn in the Workplace 214

Training Transfer 215

Autonomous Workplace Learning 216

Self-Regulated Learning in the Workplace 219

The Importance of Active Engagement 220

Fostering Lifelong Learning 221

Conclusions 223

10 Research Agenda 225

The Dynamic Nature of Learning 225

Research Agenda 227

References 233


A History of the How People Learn Studies and Their Use 295

B List of Relevant Reports Published by the National Academies Press 299

C Study Populations in Research on Learning 315

D Committee and Staff Biographies 319

Customer Reviews