Hellenistic Science and Culture in the Last Three Centuries b.c.

Hellenistic Science and Culture in the Last Three Centuries b.c.

by George Sarton

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Overview

"No historian of science equaled him in knowledge, breadth and enthusiasm, none saw the subject whole as he did, and none did so much to promote the study." — Scientific American.
In the centuries immediately preceding the birth of Christ, geometry, astronomy, physics, anatomy, mathematics, grammar and other disciplines flowered in a nurturing matrix of Greek rationalism mixed with fructifying elements from Egyptian, Jewish, Persian, Syrian, Indian, African and other cultures. The result was one of the most fertile and influential periods in Western intellectual history. In this monumental study, a noted scholar focuses on this era, painting a broad picture that emphasizes science but also includes ancient arts and letters, since as Professor Sarton notes, "We could never understand Hellenistic culture without their gracious presence."
The book is divided into two parts: Part One deals with the third century B.C. As the empire of Alexander the Great disintegrated, a Greek intellectual hegemony evolved, grounded in the work of Ptolemy and Euclid, Aristarchos and Archimedes, Eratosthenes and other thinkers. Ranging widely across the spectrum of Hellenistic accomplishment, Dr. Sarton outlines advances in geography and chronology, physics, technology, anatomy, medicine, philosophy and religion, language and more.
Part Two takes up the last two centuries before the Christian era. Beginning with the social background of the Hellenistic world, the author illuminates the relationship between Greek religion and Hebrew scripture, the development of Athenian schools of philosophy, and the astronomical theories of Hipparchos, as well as documenting advances in mathematics, physics and technology, natural history, medicine, geography, philology, art, and literature.
Writing with exceptional acumen and erudition, Dr. Sarton, one of the world's foremost authorities on the history of science, develops a stimulating and vibrant picture of the beginnings of Western science and culture, and demonstrates how the achievements of three extraordinary centuries have echoed down the ages.



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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780486277400
Publisher: Dover Publications
Publication date: 10/12/1993
Edition description: Reissue
Pages: 592
Product dimensions: 5.50(w) x 8.50(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

FOREWORD by Bernard Cohen
PART ONE
THE THIRD CENTURY
I. THE ALEXANDRIAN RENAISSANCE
THE DISITNEGRATION OF ALEXANDERS EMPIRE
IRANIAN AND INDIAN INFLUENCES IN THE HELLENISTIC KINGDOMS
MILINDAPANHA
SOME PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON THE EXCHANGE OF SCIENTIFIC IDEAS
PTOLEMAIC EGYPT
"ALEXANDRIA NEAR EGYPT"
THE HARBORS OF ALEXANDRIA AND THE LIGHTHOUSE
THE SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD
II. THE MUSEUM
FOUNDATION OF THE MUSEUM
PTOLEMAIOS I SOTER AND PTOLEMAIOS II PHILADELPHOS
Demetrios of Phaleron
Straton of Lampsacos
LATER HISTORY OF THE MUSEUM
III. EUCLID OF ALEXANDRIA
EUCLID'S LIFE AND WORK
The Elements
Postulates
NON-EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRIES
Algebra
Irrational quantities
Theory of numbers
THE EUCLIDEAN TRADITION
BIBLIOGRAPHY
IV. ASTRONOMY. ARISTARCHOS AND ARATOS
ARISTYLLOS AND TIMOCHARIS
ARISTARCHOS OF SAMOS
The Aristarchian tradition
ARATOS OF SOLOI
THE ARATIAN TRADITION
V. ARCHIMEDES AND APOLLONIOS
ARCHIMEDES OF SYRACUSE
Geometry
Arithmetic
Mechanics
THE ARCHIMEDEAN TRADITION
CONON OF SAMOS
APOLLONIOS OF PERGE
THE APOLLONIAN TRADITION
VI. GEOGRAPHY AND CHRONOLOGY IN THE THIRD CENTURY ERATOSTHENES OF CYRENE
ERATOSTHENES OF CYRENE
PRE-ERATOSTHENIAN GEOGRAPHY
ERATOSTHENES GEOGRAPHIC WORKS
THE MEASUREMENT OF THE EARTH
ASTRONOMY
MATHEMATICS
PHILOLOGY
THE ERATOSTHENIAN TRADITION
NOTE ON THE OLYMPIADS
THE MARMOR PARIUM
VII. PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE THIRD CENTURY
EUCLID
ARCHIMEDES
ENGINEERING AND PUBLIC WORKS IN THE GREEK EAST
THE GREAT SHIPS
ENGINEERING AND PUBLIC WORKS IN THE ROMAN EAST
VIII. ANATOMY IN THE THIRD CENTURY
HEROPHILOS OF CHALEDON
ERASISTRATOS OF IULIS
VIVISECTION
EUDEMOS OF ALEXANDRIA
IX. MEDICINE IN THE THIRD CENTURY
APOLLONIOS OF ALEXANDRIA AND NICANROS OF COLOPHO
PHILIONOS OF COS
"ANDREAS, DISCIPLE OF HEROPHILOS"
ARCHAGATHOS OF ROME
X. THE LIBRARY
ACIENT LIBRARIES
THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA
Librarians of Alexandria
Growth of the Library
Rolls of papyrus
Size of the Library
ZENODOTOS OF EPHESOS
CALLIMACHOS OF CYRENE
APOLLONIOS OF RHODOS
ERATOSTHENES OF CYRENE
ARISTOPHANES OF BYZANTION
ARISTARCHOS OF SAMOTHRACE
LATER HISTORY OF THE LIBRARY
XI. PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGION IN THE THIRD CENTURY
THE ACADEMY
SCHOOLS OF MEGARA AND CYRENE
THE LYCEUM
THE PORCH
THE GARDEN
CYNICS AND SKEPTICS
ROYAL PATRONS
STOICISM
TYCHE
ASTROLOGY
ORIENTAL RELIGIONS
ISRAEL
XII. KNOWLEDGE OF THE PAST IN THE THIRD CENTURY
THE EARLY HISTORIANS OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE ALEXANDER ROMANCE
OTHER GREEK HISTORIANS
Crateros the Younger
Philochoros of Athens
Hieronynos of Cardia
Menippos of Gadara
THE EARLIEST ROMAN HISTORIANS
Q. FABIUS PICTOR AND L. CINCUS ALIMENTUS
XIII. "LANGUAGE, ARTS, AND LETTERS"
THE EARLY GROWTH OF GREEK PHILOLOGY
MENADROS OF ATHENS
A FEW MINOR POETS
APOLLONIOS OF RHODOS
THEOCRITOS OF SYRACUSE
SCULPTURE
Lysipos of Sicyon
Chares of Lindos
Antigonos of Carystos
"Victory of Samothrace"
"The "Lady of Elche"
Tanagra statuettes
PAINTING
APELLES OF COLOPHON
SPHRAGISTICS
PYRGOTELES
XIV. ORIENTALISM
INDIA
Nearchos and Megasthenes
Asoka and Buddhist expansion
Short bibliography
EGYPT
Manethon
The calendar of Sais
BABYLONIA
BEROSSOS
PHOENICIA
ISRAEL
PART TWO
THE LAST TWO CENTURIES
XV. THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND
THE HELLENISTIC WORLD
THE GROWTH OF ROME
CAESAR AND AUGUSTUS
ROMAN LIBRARIES
ARCHIVES AND CACTA DIURNA
XVI. RELIGION IN THE LAST TWO CENTURIES
GREEK RELIGION
HEBREW WRITINGS
THE OLD TESTAMENT APOCRYPHA
THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS
THE ESSENES
JEWS VS. GREEKS
Legend that Greek wisdom was derived from Hebrew sources
NATIONAL CULTS
XVII. "PHILOSOPHY IN THE LAST TWO CENTURIES. POSEIDONIOS, CICERO, AND LUCRETIUS"
ATHENIAN SCHOOLS
THE GROWTH OF STOICISM
PANAITIOS OF RHODOS
POSEIDONIOS OF APAMELA
CICERO
LUCRETIUS
The Lucretian tradition
FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE
XVIII. MATHEMATICS IN THE LAST TWO CENTURIES
HYPSICLES
Polybios
Hipparchos of Nicaia
Artemidoros of Ephesos
Eudoxos of Cyzios
Poseidonios of Apameia
Strabon of Amaseia
Isidoros of Charax
LATIN GEOGRAPHY
Julius Casear
M. V. Agrippa
King Juba II
Hyginus
XXIV. KNOWLEDGE OF THE PAST IN THE LAST TWO CENTURIES
THE GREEK HISTORIANS
Polybios
The other Greek historians
Polemon of Troas and Agatharchides of Cnidos
Apollonios of Athens
Poseidonios
Castor of Rhodos
Diodoros of Sicily
Nicolaos of Damascus
Dionysios of Halicarnassos
Strabon of Amaseia
Juba II of Numidia
THE LATIN HISTORIANS
Ennius
Cato the Censor
Caesar
Varro
Sallust
Livy
XXV. LITERATURE
GREEK LETTERS
Meleagros of Gadra
Philodemos of Gadara
Archias of Antioch
Parthenios of Nicaia
Lesser prose writers
LATIN LETTERS
Livius Andronicus and Naevius
Ennius
Plautus and Terentius
Cato the Censor
Scipio Aemilianus and C. Lucilius
Catullus
Cicero
Caesar
M. T. Varro
Sallust
Livy
THE LATIN POETS OF THE AUGUSTAN AGE
Maecenas
Virgil
Horace
Tibullus and Propertius
Ovid
XXVI. PHILOLOGY IN THE LAST TWO CENTURIES
GREEK PHILOLOGY
LATIN PHILOLOGY
XXVII. ART IN THE LAST TWO CENTURIES
"HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE IN GREECE, EGYPT, AND ASIA"
HELLENISTIC SCULPTURE IN ROME
ROMAN SCULPTURE
HELLENISTIC AND ROMAN PAINTING
ENGRAVED GEMS
XXVIII. ORIENTALISM IN THE LAST TWO CENTURIES
BORDERLANDS: THE PARTHIAN EMPIRE AND THE RED SEA
Trade with India and China
Polybios
Ptolemaios V Epiphanes; the Rosetta Stone
Mithridates VI the Great
THE END OF THE FIRST CENTURY
XXIX. CONCLUSION
GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX

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