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The Greeks: History, Culture, and Society / Edition 2

The Greeks: History, Culture, and Society / Edition 2

by Ian Morris, Barry B. Powell
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Organized chronologically, this text presents a complete picture of Greek civilization as a history and features sections on the art, architecture, literature, and thought of each period.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780205697342
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 07/09/2009
Series: Penguin Custom Editions: the Western World Series
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 576
Product dimensions: 7.40(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.80(d)

About the Author

Ian Morris is the Jean and Rebecca Willard Professor of Classics and Professor of History at Stanford University, where he teaches large lecture courses on ancient empires and Greek history. He is either the author or the editor of nine books on ancient history and archaeology, and directs a major archaeological excavation in Sicily. His latest book, Why the West Rules … For Now will appear in 2010. He has lectured at universities across America and Europe, and r appeared on television on the History Channel, Discovery Channel, and A&E Channel.

Barry B. Powell is the Halls-Bascom Professor of Classics Emeritus at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where in his long career he was well known as a teacher of large lecture classes in ancient civilization and myth and for seminars on Homer. He has lectured in many countries and is the author of the bestselling Classical Myth (6th edition, 2008), widely used in college courses. He is best known as the author of Homer and the Origin of the Greek Alphabet (1991), which argues that the Greek alphabet was invented in order to record the poems of Homer. With Ian Morris he published the internationally admired A New Companion to Homer (1997). The 2nd edition of his popular introductory text Homer appeared in 2007, and he has written numerous other books, articles, screenplays, a novel, poetry, and a mock-epic The War at Troy: A True History (2006). He Recently, he appeared on the History Channel special Troy: The True Story (2005). His study Writing: Theory and History of the Technology of Civilization (2008) establishes a scientific terminology for studying the history of writing.

Table of Contents




Pronunciation Guide

About the Authors



1. A Small, Far-Off Land

Historical Sketch

Why Study the Greeks?

Who Were the Greeks?

The Structure of This Book: History, Culture, and Society

Key Terms

Further Reading

2. Country and People

Greek Geography, Climate, and Agriculture



Health and Disease


Economic Growth in Ancient Greece

Key Terms

Further Reading

3. The Greeks at Home

Gender Relationships: Ideals and Realities


Adults and Children

Key Terms

Further Reading

4. The Greeks Before History, 12,000-1200 B.C.

The End of the Last Ice Age, 12,000-11,000 B.C.

The Origins of Agriculture, 11,000-5000 B.C.

Greeks and Indo-Europeans

Neolithic Society and Economy, 5000-3000 B.C.

The Early Bronze Age, 3000-2300 B.C.

The Middle Bronze Age, 2300-800 B.C.

The Age of Minoan Palaces, 2000-600 B.C.

The Rise of Mycenaean Greece, 1750-500 B.C.

The End of Minoan Civilization, 1600-1400 B.C.

Mycenaean Greece: Archaeology, Linear B, and Homer

The End of the Bronze Age, circa 200 B.C.

Key Terms

Further Reading

5. The Dark Age, 1200-800 B.C.

The Collapse of the Old States

Life Among the Ruins

Dark Age Heroes

Art and Trade in the Dark Age

The Eighth-Century Renaissance: Economy

The Eighth-Century Renaissance: Society

The Eighth-Century Renaissance: Culture


Key Terms

Further Reading

6. Homer

The Homeric Question

Milman Parry and Oral Poetry

The Oral Poet in Homer

Heinrich Schliemann and the Trojan War

The Tragic Iliad

Homer and the Invention of Plot

The Comic Odyssey

Odysseus and Homer

Key Terms

Further Reading

7. Religion and Myth

Definitions of Religion and Myth

Hesiod’s Myth of the Origin of the Gods

Greek Religion in History

Forms of Greek Religious Practice

Hesiod’s Myth of Sacrifice

Gods and Other Mysterious Beings

Chthonic Religion

The Ungrateful Dead and the Laying of the Ghost

Ecstatic and Mystical Religion


Key Terms

Further Reading

8. Ancient Greece, 800-480 B.C.: Economy, Society, Politics

Government by Oligarchy

Elite Culture

The Tyrants

The Structure of Archaic States


Key Terms

Further Reading

9. The Archaic Cultural Revolution, 700-480 B.C.

Natural Philosophy in Miletus

Pythagoras: Philosophy and Social Science in the West

Hecataeus, Herodotus, and Historiê

Lyric poets

Material Culture

Art and Thought in Sixth-Century Greece

Key Terms

Further Reading

10. A Tale of Two Archaic Cities: Sparta and Athens, 700-480 B.C.


Spartiates, Perioikoi, and Helots

Plutarch’s Sparta

Spartan Government


The Seventh-Century Crisis


Pisistratus and the Consequences of Solon’s Reforms


Athens Submits to Persia

Key Terms

Further Reading

11. Persia and the Greeks, 550-490 B.C.

Empires of the Ancient Near East


Cyrus and the Rise of Persia, 559—530 B.C.

Cambyses and Darius, 530—52 B.C.

Persia’s Northwest Frontier and the Ionian Revolt, 52—494 B.C.

The Battle of Marathon, 490 B.C.

Key Terms

Further Reading

12. The Great War, 480-479 B.C.

Storm Clouds in the West

Storm Clouds in the East

The Storm Breaks in the West: The Battle of Himera, 480 B.C.

The Storm Breaks in the East: The Battle of Thermopylae, 480 B.C.

The Fall of Athens

The Battle of Salamis

The End of the Storm: Battles of Plataea and Mycale, 479 B.C.


Key Terms

Further Reading

13. Democracy and Empire; Athens and Syracuse, 479-431 B.C.

The Expansion of the Syracusan State, 479—461 B.C.

The Western Democracies, 461—433 B.C.

Economic Growth in Western Greece, 479—433 B.C. Cimon and the Creation of the Athenian Empire, 478—461 B.C.

The First Peloponnesian War, 460—446 B.C.

Pericles and the Consolidation of Athenian Power, 446—433 B.C.

Economic Growth in the Aegean

The Edge of the Abyss, 433—431 B.C.

Key Terms

Further Reading

14. Art and Thought in the Fifth Century B.C.


Material Culture

Key Terms

Further Reading

15. Fifth-Century Drama


The City of Dionysia

The Theater of Dionysus

Narrative Structure

Character and Other Dimensions of Tragedy

Tragic Plots


The Origins of Comedy

The Plots of Old Comedy

The Structures of Old Comedy


Key Terms

Further Reading

16. The Peloponnesian War and Its Aftermath, 431-399 B.C.

The Archidamian War, 431—421 B.C.

The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition, 421—413 B.C.

Sicily and the Carthaginian War, 412—404 B.C.

The Ionian War, 412—404 B.C.

Aftermath, 404—399 B.C.


Key Terms

Further Reading

17. The Greeks between Persia and Carthage, 399-360 B.C.

Sparta’s Empire, 404—360 B.C.

Economy, Society, and War

Sparta’s Collapse, 371 B.C.

Anarchy in the Aegean, 371—360 B.C.

Carthage and Syracuse, 404—360 B.C.

The Golden Age of Syracuse, 393—367 B.C.

Anarchy in the West, 367—345 B.C.


Key Terms

Further Reading

18. Greek Culture in the Fourth Century B.C.

Material Culture




Key Terms

Further Reading


The Warlords of Macedon I: Philip II and Alexander the King

Macedonia before Philip II

Philip’s Struggle for Survival, 359—357 B.C.

Philip Consolidates His Position, 357—352 B.C.

Philip Seeks a Greek Peace, 352—346 B.C.

The Struggle for a Greek Peace, 346—338 B.C.

Philip’s End, 338—336 B.C.

Alexander the King

The Conquest of Persia, 334—330 B.C.

Key Terms

Further Reading


The Warlords of Macedon II: Alexander the God

The Fall of the Great King Darius, 331-330 B.C.

After the War, 330—324 B.C.

War in India, 327—326 B.C.

The Long March Home, 326—324 B.C.

The Last Days, 324—323 B.C.


Key Terms

Further Reading


The Successors to Alexander, 323—220 B.C

The Wars of the Successors, 323—301 B.C

The Hellenistic World after Ipsus

The Seleucid Empire

Ptolemaic Egypt

The Antigonids: Macedonia

Key Terms

Further Reading


The Greek Poleis, 323—220 B.C

Impoverishment and Depopulation in Mainland Greece

Athens in Decline

Sparta’s Counterrevolution

The Western Greeks: Agathocles of Syracuse (361—289/8 B.C)

Pyrrhus of Epirus

Hellenistic Society: The Weakening of the Egalitarian Ideal


Key Terms

Further Reading


Hellenistic Culture, 323—30 B.C.

Hellenistic Historians


Material Culture

Hellenistic Philosophy


Quantitative Science in the Hellenistic Age


Key Terms

Further Reading


The Coming of Rome, 220—30 B.C.

The Rise of Rome, 753—280 B.C.

Rome, Carthage, and the Western Greeks, 280—200 B.C.

Rome Breaks the Hellenistic Empires, 200—167 B.C.

Consequences of the Wars: The Greeks

Consequences of the Wars: The Romans

New Roman Army

The Agony of the Aegean, 99—70 B.C.

Pompey’s Greek Settlement, 70—62 B.C.

The End of Hellenistic Egypt, 61—30 B.C.


Key Terms

Further Reading



The Bronze Age (c. 3000-1200 B.C.; Chapter 4)

The Dark Age (c. 1200-700 B.C.; Chapter 5)

The Archaic Period (c. 700-500 B.C.; Chapters 6-10)

The Classical Period (c. 500-350 B.C.; Chapters 11-18)

The Macedonian Takeover (c. 350-323 B.C.; Chapters 19-22)

The Hellenistic Period (c. 323-30 B.C.; Chapters 23-24)


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