Globalizing Sport: How Organizations, Corporations, Media, and Politics are Changing Sport

Globalizing Sport: How Organizations, Corporations, Media, and Politics are Changing Sport

by George H. Sage

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Sport is enjoyed by millions of people across the world, and both watching and playing sport constitutes a major part of modern leisure time. But sport is also a huge worldwide industry. In Globalizing Sport, George Sage invites readers to explore a deeper understanding of the global dynamics of sport - not only competitions but of the big businesses of money, media coverage, athletic apparel and more. He shows how phenomena such as migration, labour, commerce and politics affect the athletes and the fans, continually reshaping the business and experience of sport. Globalizing Sport puts sport in its political, economic and social context, revealing its connections with businesses, countries, media outlets and education systems.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781317258803
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 11/17/2015
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 272
Sales rank: 1,030,525
File size: 3 MB

About the Author

George H. Sage is Professor Emeritus of Sociology and Kinesiology at the University of Northern Colorado. He has published more than fifty articles and is the author of many books, including Globalizing Sport: How Corporations, Media, and Politics Are Changing Sports (Paradigm 2010). He was inducted into the National Association for Sport and Physical Education Hall of Fame in 2006. He is the past president of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 Global Sport: The Transformation from Local to National to Global 1

"Global," "Globalization," "Sport": Clarifying the Core Concepts 2

Is Globalization Something New? 4

Sport: From Folk Pastimes to Sportification 5

Is Sport Something New? 6

Sportification 7

Political Economic Forces Shaping Globalization 8

Globalization from Above 9

Globalization from Below 11

Sport and Globalization from Above and Below 13

Cultural Forces Shaping Globalization 13

Homogenization (Americanization) Perspective 15

Hybridization Perspective 18

Polarization Perspective 19

Homogenization, Hybridization, and Polarization Perspectives and Sport 21

Forms of Globalization and Manifestations in Sport 22

Segmentation of the Global Sport Industry 23

Summary 24

References 25

2 Global Sport Organizations: Governing the World of Sport 29

Governing Global Sport: Global Sport Organizations 29

From International Sport Initiatives to Global Sport Organizations 32

The Olympic Movement and Its Network 34

International Olympic Committee 34

Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games 37

National Olympic Committees 38

International Sport Federations 39

Other Organizations Within the Olympic Movement Network 39

Global Issues Confronting the Olympic Movement 41

Females in the Olympics 41

The Amateur Issue 42

Inclusion of Athletes with Special Needs 44

International Sport Federations: GSOs Within the IOC 46

The Preeminent International Federation: Fédération Internationale de Football Association 51

Global Sport Organizations and Solo Sports 53

Association of Tennis Professionals 54

Women's Tennis Association 55

Multiple GSOs for a Sport: Professional Boxing 55

Global Sporting Organizations and International Games 57

Summary 58

Notes 60

References 60

3 Global Migration of Sports Labor 63

Human Migration: Past and Present 64

The Migration of Sports Labor: Sports Workers Throughout the World 66

Sports-Labor Migration Within Nations 67

Sports-Labor Migration: Intra - and Intercontinental Migration 68

Global Patterns of Migration Among Sports Labor in Selected Sports 71

Sports-Labor Migration and Soccer 71

Sports-Labor Migration and Basketball 76

Sports-Labor Migration and Ice Hockey 79

Sports-Labor Migration and Baseball 81

Sports-Labor Migration and Intercollegiate Sports 84

Sports-Labor Migration and the Olympic Games 86

Related Features of Sports Migration 89

Sports Migrants' Motivations 89

Recruitment of Sports Labor 91

Consequences of Sports-Labor Migration 93

Summary 94

Notes 95

References 95

4 The Global Sport Industry: Production and Promotion 100

The Rise of Factory Manufacturing 102

The Growth of Commercial Sports 104

Manufacturing in the Global Economy 106

Global Sporting Goods Manufacturing: From Humble Beginnings to Transnational Corporations 108

Wilson Sporting Goods 111

Adidas AG 112

Reebok International 113

Mizuno Corporation 115

Nike, Inc. 116

Sporting Goods Manufacturing in the Global Economy: The Case of Nike 118

Nike's Asian Factories: Not a Pretty Sight 119

Nike's Responses to Factory Reports and the Social Movement 121

Nike's New Initiatives: A Commitment to Reform or a Public Relations Ploy? 123

Beyond Sport Production to Sport Promotion 126

Individual Athlete Endorsements 126

Event and Team Sponsorships 130

Summary 133

Notes 134

References 134

5 Global Sport and Global Mass Media 140

Mass Communication, Mass Media, and Media Sport 140

Social Roles of the Mass Media 141

Global Organizations and the Mass Media 142

Conglomerate Media Ownership 143

The Global Media Sport Complex 147

Articulations Between the Mass Media and Sport 149

Media Technology and Commercial Sport Evolve Together 150

Overlapping Ownership of Media and Sport Organizations 154

The Symbiosis Between Television and Sport 157

Enhancing Sport Revenue via Television 159

The Market for Broadcast Rights 161

Transnational Corporate Sport Sponsorships 164

Media as Public Relations Tool for Global Sport 167

New Media and Global Sports 168

The Internet 168

Video Games 170

Twitter, Facebook, MySpace, and YouTube 170

Online Sport Gambling 171

Media Sport and Deterritorialization of Fans 175

Global Media Sport and Gender 175

Summary 178

Notes 179

References 180

6 Global Politics and Sport 185

Political Intervention in Sports 186

Sport and the Promotion of Political Ideology 187

Advancing National Unity and Recognition Through Sport 188

Sport As an Instrument of International Politics and Diplomacy 189

Promoting Nazism: The 1936 Olympic Games 190

Promoting Communism: The Soviet Sport System 190

East Germany and the People's Republic of China: Adopting the Soviet Sport Model 191

The United States: Joining Other Countries in Sport Politics 192

New and Smaller Nations Adopt the Model 194

Developing Countries and National Unification Through Sport 195

The African Continent and African States 196

National Embarrassments Through Sport 199

Geopolitical Censorship in Sport: Nation-Led Boycotts 199

Global Politics Within Sport 200

The Politics of Gender Inequality in Global Sport 200

The Politics of Racial Inequality in Global Sport 204

Politics Within the IOC and FIFA 209

IOC 209

FIFA 211

Political Dissent at Global Sports Events 212

Summary 214

Notes 215

References 215

7 Global Sport: Future Issues and Trends 219

Global Population Trends and Sport 220

World Population Growth 221

Population Composition 222

Increasing Global Urbanization 224

The Future of Global Sport Organizations 226

The Olympic Movement: The IOC, the Preeminent GSO 228

Migration of Sport Labor in the Future 238

Global Sport-Industry Production in the Future 240

Future Labor Issues in Sporting Goods and Equipment 241

Future Technology and Sporting Goods and Equipment 242

The Future of Media Sports 243

Television Coverage 243

Television Technology and Sports Viewing 244

Internet Technology and Sports Spectatorship 245

Video Technology and Sports Video Games 245

Sports Blogging 246

Sport Politics and the Future 247

Summary 249

References 250

Index 253

About the Author 270

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