Pub. Date:
McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Geometrical and Visual Optics : A Clinical Introduction / Edition 1

Geometrical and Visual Optics : A Clinical Introduction / Edition 1

by Steven H. Schwartz


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A highly visual, clinically oriented text covering the key topics in geometrical and visual optics essential to optometric practice. Features over 300 illustrations and examples, as well as numerous worked-out problems, all designed to "demystify" clinical optics.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780071374156
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Publication date: 03/01/1902
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 315
Product dimensions: 7.50(w) x 9.50(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

1.Basic Terms and Concepts1
Objects, Light Rays, and Pencils2
Snell's Law6
Self-Assessment Problems12
2.Refraction at Spherical Surfaces13
Converging and Diverging Surfaces13
More on Focal Points16
Refracting Power and Focal Lengths18
Another Way to Calculate Power19
Real Images21
Virtual Images22
Self-Assessment Problems24
3.The Vergence Relationship27
Basic Concepts27
More on Vergence28
Sign Conventions31
Sample Problems32
Converging Surface32
Location of Focal Points35
Diverging Surface35
Locating the Object When Given the Image Location37
Surface with No Power38
Self-Assessment Problems41
4.Thin Lenses43
Focal Points43
Ray Tracing47
Paraxial Relationship47
Newton's Relation50
Self-Assessment Problems52
5.Optical Systems with Multiple Surfaces53
Multiple Thin Lens Systems53
Virtual Objects57
Thick Lenses59
Self-Assessment Problems62
6.Equivalent Lenses63
Definitions and Formulae63
Equivalent Power65
Front Vertex and Back Vertex Power66
Principal Planes67
Sample Problem67
Locating an Image Using an Equivalent Lens72
Nodal Points73
Self-Assessment Problems75
7.Schematic Eyes and Ametropia77
Gullstrand and Reduced Eye Models77
Far-Point in Emmetropia85
Far-Point Vergence Relationship85
Lens Effectivity87
Correction of Ametropia with Laser and Surgical Procedures90
Self-Assessment Problems94
Accommodation in the Emmetropic Eye96
Accommodation in Uncorrected Ametropia98
Near Point of Accommodation101
Accommodation in Corrected Ametropia103
Correction of Presbyopia108
Self-Assessment Problems111
9.Cylindrical Lenses and the Correction of Astigmatism113
Lens Crosses114
Lens Formulae/Prescriptions116
Image Formation: Point Sources119
Image Formation: Extended Sources121
Astigmatism: Definitions and Classifications123
Jackson Crossed-Cylinder Test126
Spherical Equivalency127
What Does the Astigmat See?129
Self-Assessment Problems131
Angle of Deviation133
Prism Power135
Prismatic Effects of Lenses137
Prentice's Rule137
Clinical Applications140
Self-Assessment Problems144
11.Depth of Field145
Blur Circles and Visual Acuity145
Depth of Field and Depth of Focus150
Hyperfocal Distance154
Self-Assessment Problems157
12.Magnifying Devices159
Magnification by Plus Lenses159
Lateral Magnification159
Effective Magnification160
Angular Magnification of a Plus Lens162
The Problem with Magnification163
Prescribing Near-Plus Magnifiers163
Magnifying Lens and Bifocal Add in Combination166
Fixed-Focus Stand Magnifiers167
Closed-Circuit Television170
More on Near Magnification Devices170
Galilean Telescopes171
Keplerian Telescopes171
An Alternative Method of Determining a Telescope's Angular Magnification173
Lens Caps174
Self-Assessment Problems177
13.Retinal Image Size179
Linear Size of the Retinal Image in Uncorrected Ametropia179
Spectacle Magnification181
Angular Magnification in Corrected Ametropia183
Physical Image Size in Corrected Ametropia184
Self-Assessment Problems189
Ray Tracing: Concave, Convex, and Plane Mirrors191
Concave Mirrors191
Convex Mirrors193
Plane Mirrors195
Power of Mirrors196
The Vergence (Paraxial) Relationship198
Reflections and Antireflective Coatings203
Purkinje Images206
Location of Purkinje Image I207
Location of Purkinje Image III209
Corneal Topography213
Keratometry and Contact Lenses214
Javal's Rule219
Self-Assessment Problems223
The Paraxial Assumption225
Seidel Aberrations226
Spherical Aberration227
Radial Astigmatism234
Curvature of Field235
Spherical Aberration of the Human Eye237
Wavefront Sensing and Adaptive Optics237
Measurement of the Eye's Monochromatic Aberrations238
Supernormal Vision240
Imaging the Fundus242
Chromatic Aberrations243
Dispersive Power and Constrigence244
Achromatic Lenses245
Chromatic Aberrations of the Human Eye247
The Red-Green Refraction Technique249
Lateral (Transverse) Chromatic Aberration249
Self-Assessment Problems252
Answers to Self-Assessment Problems253
Chapter 1Basic Terms and Concepts253
Chapter 2Refraction at Spherical Surfaces254
Chapter 3The Vergence Relationship256
Chapter 4Thin Lenses260
Chapter 5Optical Systems with Multiple Surfaces262
Chapter 6Equivalent Lenses268
Chapter 7Schematic Eyes and Ametropia275
Chapter 8Accommodation278
Chapter 9Cylindrical Lenses and the Correction of Astigmatism282
Chapter 10Prisms287
Chapter 11Depth of Field289
Chapter 12Magnifying Devices291
Chapter 13Retinal Image Size293
Chapter 14Reflection295
Chapter 15Aberrations302

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