Forgotten Reformer: Robert McClaughry and Criminal Justice Reform in Nineteenth-Century America

Forgotten Reformer: Robert McClaughry and Criminal Justice Reform in Nineteenth-Century America

by Frank Morn

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Forgotten Reformer traces criminal justice practice and reform developments in late nineteenth-century America through the life and career of Robert McClaughry, a leading reformer. As a warden of one of America's toughest prisons, as a chief of police of Chicago, as a superintendent of two different reformatories, and as one of the first wardens of the federal prison system, McClaughry developed and led a reform movement that resonates today. As a founding member of the reformatory movement that sought to "save" young first offenders, McClaughry advocated new sentencing structures, probation, parole, and rehabilitative regimes within new institutions for young first offenders called reformatories. McClaughry then successfully got these reformatory ideals placed into adult prisons. In addition, McClaughry became American's main advocate for a criminal identification method called the Bertillon system. He set up the first identification bureaus at the Illinois State Penitentiary, the Chicago police department, and the federal prison at Leavenworth, Kansas and these became models for others across the country. Finally, as a founding member of the National Association of Chiefs of Police (today the International Association of Chiefs of Police) and the National Prison Assocation (today American Corrections Association), McClaughry sought to professionalize police and prison administrators.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780761853008
Publisher: UPA
Publication date: 12/22/2010
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 402
Product dimensions: 5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 1.10(d)

About the Author

Frank Morn is a professor of criminal justice sciences at Illinois State University. He is the author of "The Eye That Never Sleeps": A History of the Pinkerton National Detective Agency and Academic Politics and the History of Criminal Justice Education.

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Introduction xi

Part I Mcclaughry and His Middle Border Beginnings

1 Matters of Place 3

2 Matters of Faith 9

3 Matters of the Mind 16

4 Matters of War 19

5 Matters of Business 30

Part II Crime and Punishment in Post-Civil War Illinois

6 Crime 35

7 Punishment at Alton 40

8 Early Joliet 43

9 McClaughry at Joliet 51

10 The Prisoners 57

11 Prison Workers 71

12 McClaughry and Reform 85

13 The Bertillon System 90

14 Fond Farewells 95

Part III McClaughry and the Reformatory Movement

15 Youth Crime in Pennsylvania 101

16 The Reformatory 111

17 McClaughry at Huntingdon 115

Part IV Policing Chicago

18 Chicago in the 1890s 127

19 Policing the City 136

20 McClaughry and the Police 141

21 Crusades against Crime and Disorder 165

22 Moving On 183

Part V State Politics and Penology: McClaughry At Pontiac

23 Youth Crime in Illinois 189

24 John Peter Altgeld 199

25 Pontiac Reformatory 203

26 State Politics and Prisons 211

Part VI Growing a Prison Profession

27 Rise of Professionalism in Penology 229

28 Academics v. Practitioners 237

29 "Buckets and Brooms" 244

30 Ascendancy of the Wardens 258

Part VII McClaughry at Leavenworth

31 Rise of Federal Corrections 267

32 McClaughry Comes to Leavenworth 283

33 Crises at Leavenworth 297

34 Prison Workers at Leavenworth 316

35 To All Purposes Futile 322

Afterword: Forlorn Hope 329

Bibliography 341

Index 355

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