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Examining Reasoning: Classroom Techniques To Help Students Produce and Defend Claims

Examining Reasoning: Classroom Techniques To Help Students Produce and Defend Claims

by Tracy L. Ocasio, Robert J. Marzano


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Based on the earlier work of Dr. Robert J. Marzano, this instructional guide provides explicit steps, examples, and adaptations to help educators effectively teach students how to examine errors in reasoning.

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781941112069
Publisher: Learning Sciences
Publication date: 12/01/2014
Series: Marzano Center: Essentials for Achieving Rigor Series , #2
Pages: 112
Sales rank: 490,388
Product dimensions: 6.80(w) x 9.70(h) x 0.30(d)

About the Author

Tracy Ocasio, EdD, was a successful assistant superintendent for curriculum and instruction and a principal before joining Learning Sciences International. With more than 25 years in education that includes experience as an English as a Second Language teacher, reading specialist, English teacher, instructional support teacher, elementary classroom teacher, and preschool teacher, Dr. Ocasio is able to relate her experience in early childhood education through grade 12 to her work as a staff developer. Dr. Ocasio also incorporates this background into her writing for the Learning Sciences Marzano Center blog. Her professional career includes teaching at the undergraduate and graduate levels, as well as working as a crisis intervention/emergency services unit supervisor. Her educational background includes a doctorate in Reading and Language Development and Educational Leadership. Her graduate level education includes a master's degree in Public Administration. Robert J. Marzano, PhD, is a nationally recognized education researcher, speaker, trainer, and author of more than 30 books and 150 articles on topics such as instruction, assessment, writing and implementing standards, cognition, effective leadership, and school intervention. His practical translations of the most current research and theory into classroom strategies are widely practiced internationally by both teachers and administrators.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xi

About the Authors xiii

Introduction 1

Examining Reasoning 5

Part I Examing Logic in Reasoning 15

Instructional Technique 1 Using Logic to Examine a Response 17

Instructional Technique 2 Examining Errors and the Accuracy of a Response 29

Instructional Technique 3 Examining the Efficiencies of Multiple Methods of Problem Solving 39

Part II Supporting Claims and Assertions with Evidence 49

Instructional Technique 4 Producing and Defending Claims Related to Content 51

Instructional Technique 5 Identifying and Analyzing Claims in an Author's Work 65

Instructional Technique 6 Judging Reasoning and Evidence in an Author's Work 75

Conclusion 85

References 87

Index 89

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