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Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.
Essentials of Comparative Politics

Essentials of Comparative Politics

by Patrick O'Neil


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This introductory textbook presents a basic analytical framework, which may be used when comparing the politics of different countries. It incorporates an analysis of several transformational events of recent history, including the economic growth of Asia and the response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. An extensive glossary of terms completes the volume. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780393976540
Publisher: Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.
Publication date: 03/19/2003
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 290
Product dimensions: 6.70(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.80(d)

About the Author

Patrick H. O’Neil is Professor of Politics and Government at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington. He received his Ph.D. in Political Science from Indiana University. Professor O’Neil’s teaching and research interests are in the areas of authoritarianism and democratization. His past research focused on Eastern Europe, and his current research deals with the Middle East, particularly Iran. His publications include Revolution from Within: The Hungarian Socialist Worker’s Party “Reform Circles” and the Collapse of Communism and Communicating Democracy: The Media and Political Transitions (editor).

Table of Contents

List of Maps xiii

About the Author xv

Preface xvii

1 Introduction 2

What Is Comparative Politics? 6

The Comparative Method 7

Can We Make a Science of Comparative Politics? 12

A Guiding Concept: Political Institutions 19

A Guiding Ideal: Reconciling Freedom and Equality 22

Institutions in Action: Can We Make a Science of Politics? 24

In Sum: Looking Ahead and Thinking Carefully 26

2 States 30

Defining the State 33

The Origins of Political Organization 38

The Rise of the Modern State 41

Comparing State Power 46

Legitimacy 46

Centralization or Decentralization 50

Power, Autonomy, and Capacity 51

Institutions in Action: Why has Pakistan Slid Toward State Failure? 56

In Sum: Studying States 58

3 Nations and Society 62

Ethnic Identity 66

National Identity 68

Citizenship and Patriotism 70

Ethnic Identity, National Identity, and Citizenship: Origins and Persistence 72

Ethnic and National Conflict 74

Political Attitudes and Political Ideology 77

Political Attitudes 77

Institutions in Action: How has India Held Together? 78

Political Ideology 83

Religion, Fundamentalism, and the Crisis of Ideology 88

Political Culture 91

In Sum: Society and Politics 95

4 Political Economy 98

The Components of Political Economy 102

Markets and Property 102

Public Goods 104

Social Expenditures: Who Benefits? 105

Taxation 106

Money, Inflation, and Economic Growth 107

Regulation 110

Trade 111

Political-Economic Systems 112

Liberalism 112

Social Democracy 114

Communism 116

Mercantilism 118

Political-Economic Systems and the State:

Comparing Outcomes 120

Measuring Wealth 121

Measuring Inequality and Poverty 122

Human Development Index (HDI) 124

Happiness 126

The Rise and Fall of Liberalism? 128

In Sum: A New Economic Era? 131

Institutions in Action: Why Have Poverty and Inequality Declined in Latin America? 132

5 Democratic Regimes 136

Defining Democracy 140

Origins of Democracy 141

Contemporary Democratization 143

Modernization and Democratization 143

Elites and Democratization 145

Society and Democratization 146

International Relations and Democratization 147

Culture and Democratization 147

Institutions of the Democratic State 148

Executives: Head of State and Head of Government 148

Legislatures: Unicameral and Bicameral 149

Judiciaries and Judicial Review 150

Models of Democracy: Parliamentary, Presidential, and Semi-Presidential Systems 152

Parliamentary Systems 152

Presidential Systems 154

Semi-Presidential Systems 155

Parliamentary, Presidential, and Semi-Presidential Systems: Benefits and Drawbacks 156

Political Parties 158

Electoral Systems 159

Referendum and Initiative 167

Civil Rights and Civil Liberties 168

In Sum: Future Challenges to Democracy 169

Institutions in Action: What Explains Democratization in Asia? 170

6 Nondemocratic Regimes 174

Totalitarianism and Nondemocratic Rule 179

Origins and Sources of Nondemocratic Rule 181

Modernization and Nondemocratic Rule 181

Elites and Nondemocratic Rule 182

Society and Nondemocratic Rule 183

International Relations and Nondemocratic Rule 184

Culture and Nondemocratic Rule 185

Nondemocratic Regimes and Political Control 187

Coercion and Surveillance 188

Co-optation: Corporatism and Clientelism 189

Personality Cults 192

Models of Nondemocratic Rule 193

Personal and Monarchical Rule 194

Military Rule 195

One-Party Rule 196

Theocracy 197

Illiberal and Hybrid Regimes 199

Institutions in Action: What Explains the Different Paths of Zimbabwe and South Africa? 200

In Sum: Retreat or Retrenchment for Nondemocratic Regimes? 202

7 Political Violence 206

What Is Political Violence? 209

Why Political Violence? 210

Institutional Explanations 210

Ideational Explanations 211

Individual Explanations 212

Comparing Explanations of Political Violence 213

Forms of Political Violence 214

Revolution 214

Terrorism 219

Institutions in Action: Why Did the "Arab Spring" of 2011 Occur? 220

Terrorism and Revolution: Means and Ends 226

Political Violence in Context: Faith, Terrorism, and Revolution 228

Countering Political Violence 232

In Sum: Meeting the Challenge of Political Violence 235

8 Developed Democracies 238

Defining Developed Democracy 242

Freedom and Equality in Developed Democracies 246

Developed Democracies Today 248

Political Institutions: Sovereignty Transformed? 250

The European Union: integration, Expansion, and Resistance 250

Institutions in Action: What Explains the Greek Economic Crisis? 256

Devolution and Democracy 258

Societal Institutions: New Identities in Formation? 260

Postmodern Values and Organization 260

Diversity, Identity and the Challenge to Postmodern Values 262

Economic Institutions: A New Market? 264

Postindustrialism 264

Maintaining the Welfare State 266

In Sum: The Developed Democracies in Transition 268

9 Communism and Postcommunism 270

Communism, Equality, and the Nature of Human Relations 274

Revolution and the "Triumph" of Communism 276

Putting Communism into Practice 278

Communist Political Economy 282

Societal Institutions under Communism 284

The Collapse of Communism 286

The Transformation of Political Institutions 289

Reorganizing the State and Constructing a Democratic Regime 290

Evaluating Political Transitions 290

The Transformation of Economic Institutions 295

Privatization and Marketization 295

Evaluating Economic Transitions 297

The Transformation of Societal Institutions 299

Re-creating Identities 300

Evaluating Societal Transitions 301

In Sum: The Legacy of Communism 303

Institutions in Action: Why Did Reform Fail in the Soviet Union But Succeed in China? 304

10 Developing Countries 308

Freedom and Equality in the Developing World 312

Imperialism and Colonialism 313

Institutions of Imperialism 317

Exporting the State 317

Sociol Identities 318

Dependent Development 320

The Challenges of Post-Imperialism 322

Building State Capacity and Autonomy 323

Generating Economic Growth 328

Puzzles and Prospects for Democracy and Development 330

Forging States 332

Budding Society 334

Promoting Economic Prosperity 336

Institutions in Action: Why Did Asia Industrialize Faster than Latin America? 338

In Sum: The Challenges of Development 340

11 Globalization and the Future of Comparative Politics 342

What Is Globalization? 346

Institutions and Globalization 348

Political Globalization 350

Economic Globalization 353

Societal Globalization 357

Taking Stock of Globalization 361

Is Globalization New? 361

Is Globalization Exaggerated? 363

Is Globalization Inevitable? 366

Institutions in Action: Did Globalization Cause the recent Economic Recession? 368

In Sum: The Future of Freedom and Equality 370

Notes A-1

Glossary A-15

Credits A-25

Index A-27

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