ISBN-10:
156670572X
ISBN-13:
9781566705721
Pub. Date:
07/01/2002
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Environmental Sampling and Analysis for Metals / Edition 1

Environmental Sampling and Analysis for Metals / Edition 1

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Overview

Determination of metals is a major part of the work of environmental testing laboratories. EPA and DEP methodology releases provide information only for selected areas of metals sampling and analysis, and their language makes them unsuitable for teaching and training purposes. Environmental Sampling and Analysis for Metals is a comprehensive and easy-to-read text for laboratory technicians and analytical chemists who need a guide for analyzing metals in environmental samples and a reference for analytical and quality control procedures.

The book provides both theoretical and practical applications in metals analysis of environmental samples and incorporates the latest in analytical techniques, instrumentation, and regulations. Topics include sample collection, preservation, step-by-step analytical procedures, complete QA/QC requirements, data validation, and more. It also provides an overview of the occurrence, source, and fate of metallic substances in the environment, as well as their control by regulations and standards. Furthermore, the authors provide guidelines to help you prepare and understand reports. The analytical methods presented in Environmental Sampling and Analysis for Metals will be useful to anyone who produces, uses, or evaluates analytical data, and will be a valuable tool in environmental education and training programs.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781566705721
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 07/01/2002
Edition description: SPIRAL
Pages: 408
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x 0.95(d)

Table of Contents

Introduction to Metals
Introduction to Elements
Periodic Table of Elements
Properties of Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
Early History of Metal Use
Sources of Metals and Their Compounds
Sources of Metal Pollution

Discussion of the Metallic Elements
Representative Elements
Transition Metals
Metalloids
Heavy Metals
Metallic Substances Essential to Life

Toxicity of Metals
General Discussion of Toxicity
Metal Toxicity
Toxic Effects of Selected Representative Metals
Toxicity of Selected Transition Metals
Toxicity of Selected Metalloids

Standards Related to Metallic Pollutants
Environmental Law
Drinking Water Standards
Surface Water Standards
Agriculturally Used Waters
Industrial Waters
Waste Characterization
Hazardous Waste Characterization
Air Pollution and Control
ISO 14001 and Environmental Law

Fundamentals of Spectroscopy
Early History of the Nature of the Light
Electromagnetic Radiation
Continuous and Line Spectra
Absorption and Emission
Beer's Law
Atomic Spectroscopy Techniques

Molecular Spectrophotometry
Molecular Absorption and Color
Molecular Absorption Spectrophotometry
Single-Beam and Double-Beam Spectrophotometer
Type of Spectrophotometers
Summary of Molecular Spectrophotometry
Spectrophotometer Calibration
Performance Check of UV/Vis and IR Spectrophotometer
Maintenance of the UV/Vis and IR Spectrophotometer

Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
Introduction
Steps in the Atomic Absorption Process
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Components
Single- and Double-Beam Instruments
Atomic Absorption Measurement Terms
Techniques in AAS Measurements
Interference in AAS Techniques
Safety in AAS Work
Quality Control
Maintenance of AA Spectrophotometers
AAS Performance Checks
Sample Collection and Sample Preparation

Direct Aspiration or Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS)
Principle
Direct Air-Acetylene Flame Method
Direct Nitrous Oxide-Acetylene Flame Method
Interferences, Safety and Quality Control Requirements of FAAS
Maintenance of FAA
Performance Check of FAAS

Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
General Discussion
Apparatus
Analysis by Graphite Furnace Spectrophotometer
Interferences in the Graphite Furnace
Stabilized Temperature Platform Furnace (STPF)
Quality Control Requirements
Maintenance of Graphite Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
Performance Check of Graphite Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
General Discussion
Apparatus
Procedure
Interference
Quality Control Requirements
Calculations and Reporting
Safety

Hydride-Generation Atomic Absorption Technique
Principles
Application
Apparatus and Materials
Interferences
Sample Collection, Preservation, and Handling
Preparation of Samples and Standards for Total Arsenic and Selenium
Procedure
Quality Control Requirements

Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (AES)
General Characteristics of ICP-AES
ICP-AES Instrumentation
Interferences in ICP-AES
Reagents and Standards
Procedure
Quality Control

Quality Control in Metals Analysis
General Discussion
Glassware Used in Metals Analysis
Chemicals
Laboratory-Pure Water
Field Quality Control
Instrument Calibration
Instrument Performance Check
Laboratory QC Checks
Detection Limits
Accuracy and Precision

Sample Collection for Metals Analysis
General Considerations in Sampling
Automatic Samplers
Sample Containers
Sample Preservation
Special Sampling Procedures
Holding Time
Field Records
Field Quality Control
Sample Collection from Different Matrices

Sample Preparation for Metal Analysis
General Discussion
Digestion Procedures for Metals
Acid Digestion for Total and Dissolved Metals
Acid Digestion of Aqueous Samples and Extracts for Total Metals by FAAS and ICP Analyzer
Acid Digestion of Aqueous Samples and Extracts for Total Metals by GrAAS
Sample Preparation for Arsenic and Selenium determination by GrAAS
Sample Preparation for Silver Determination
Sample Preparation for Antimony Determination
Sample Preparation for Mercury Determination
Acid Digestion of Sediments, Sludges, and Soils for Metals Analysis
Dissolution Procedure for Oils, Greases, and Waxes
Sample Preparation for Hexavalent Chromium (Chelation/Extraction)
Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity
Extraction Procedure for Oily Wastes
Documentation during Sample Preparation
Disposal of Samples, Digestates, Extracts, and Other Wastes
Converting Raw Data into Reportable Form
Responsibilities of the Analyst
Calculations for Final Values
Records for Raw and Calculated Data
Evaluation and Approval of Analytical Data

Reporting Analytical Data
Required Documentation
Significant Figures in Analytical Reports
Units Used to Express Analytical Results
Confidence Interval
Report Format

Selected Methods for Determination of Metals in Environmental Samples
Methodology
Aluminum
Antimony
Arsenic
Barium
Beryllium
Bismuth
Cadmium
Calcium
Chromium
Hexavalent Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Iron
Lead
Lithium
Magnesium
Manganese
Mercury
Molybdenum
Nickel
Potassium
Selenium
Silver
Sodium
Thallium
Tin
Vanadium
Zinc

Laboratory Safety Rules
Laboratory Hazards
Safe Handling of Compressed Gases
Stockroom Safety Rules
Summary of Laboratory Safety Rules

Appendices
Operation of Mass Spectrophotometer
Silicon Chips
Lasers
Metals and Plants
Toxicity and Cyanide
Components of Nucleic Acid
Polarized Light
Stock Metal Solutions
Calculation for Solid Matrices
Plasma
Sohxlet Extraction
SI Units and Conversion Factors

References
Index

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