Earth Songs, Moon Dreams: Paintings by American Indian Women

Earth Songs, Moon Dreams: Paintings by American Indian Women

by Patricia Janis Broder

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Overview

Earth Songs, Moon Dreams: Paintings by American Indian Women is a celebration of the contributions of Native American women to America's cultural heritage.

Focusing on both traditional and modern art and offering an historical and stylistic overview, Broder's book includes the work of Native American women belonging to more than forty tribes across the United States and Canada. Earth Songs, Moon Dreams features historically important works by pioneer artists of the early twentieth century, classic examples of the Indian-School tradition, examples of the first successful attempts to interpret the techniques of modernism as compatible with the symbols and stylistic conventions of traditional Indian art, and examples of the work of the most innovative and accomplished Native American women painting today.

Includes over 100 gorgeous, full color reproductions. Broder has prepared an introduction on each artist and then presents one or two samples of her work.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781466859722
Publisher: St. Martin's Publishing Group
Publication date: 12/10/2013
Sold by: Macmillan
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 320
File size: 33 MB
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About the Author

PATRICIA JANIS BRODER is considered an authority on American Indian and Western art. She was awarded the Trustees Gold Medal for "Outstanding Contribution to the West" through published books and lectures by the National Academy of Western Art. Her books include Shadows on Glass, The American West, American Indian Painting and Sculpture, and Painter's Dream, which was the winner of the Western Heritage Award for Outstanding Western Art Book. She lives with her family in Short Hills, New Jersey.

PATRICIA JANIS BRODER is a recipient of the National Cowboy Hall of Fame Trustee's Gold Medal for Outstanding Contributions to the West. Her books include Shadows on Glass, The American West, American Indian Painting and Sculpture, and Painter's Dream, which was the winner of the Western Heritage Award for Outstanding Western Art Book. She lives with her family in Short Hills, New Jersey.

Read an Excerpt

Earth Songs, Moon Dreams

Paintings by American Indian Women


By Patricia Janis Broder

St. Martin's Press

Copyright © 1999 Patricia Janis Broder
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-1-4668-5972-2


CHAPTER 1

ANNIE LITTLE WARRIOR

Plains

CEREMONY

Annie Little Warrior's Ceremony is one of the earliest images of Plains Indian life by an American Indian woman. This painting depicts a ritual dance in a Plains Indian camp. Only women are in attendance at this ceremony. Although the participants in the ritual — the dancers and the drummers — all are men, over forty women form a large square around the dancers. Annie Little Warrior must have documented a ceremony attended by the Women's Society. In all four directions, at the outer edges of the painting are tipis. Women in ceremonial long dresses and shawls stand by the tipis and walk toward the ceremonial square. A large American flag is planted inside the square proclaiming that the scene is set in the postcontact world that Annie Little Warrior knew.

In the center of the square, a chorus of four male singers sits around a large drum which they play to accompany their singing. Two of the dancers carry tomahawks, while another carries a war club and the fourth rolls a hoop. As the war club, the tomahawk, and hoop (the hoop is the symbol of the universe and God's eternal rule) are carried by performers in the War Dance, it is probable that Annie Little Warrior has painted a War Dance in which the women are praying for the success of men in warfare. It also is probable that this is a Cheyenne ceremony, for only Cheyenne men wore headdresses with the feathers extending straight upward.

Annie Little Warrior's work shows considerable sophistication, as she is able to portray the women from all four sides and the men dancing and seated around the drum. All figures are identical in size, and although their costumes are unique, the figures have no individual features. It is clear that Annie Little Warrior wished to document the daily and ritual life of her people in a world that was rapidly changing. Her work includes scenes of both contemporary life and past days — social gatherings, a feast, a buffalo hunt, and women leading horses with a travois. Historically in Plains Indian society, women's painting was limited to decorative design; here is a clear break with tradition.


ANNIE LITTLE WARRIOR

Plains

TRAVOIS — MOVING CAMP

Annie Little Warrior chose as the subject of this painting the movement of a Plains Indian camp using travois. Centuries after the Spanish introduced the wheel to the Plains Indians, these migratory people continued to use the travois as their principal means of transporting possessions from one location to another.

The travois is an A-shaped rack, built of two poles far enough apart at one end to attach an animal that would drag across the ground whatever was attached to the opposite end. Before the Spanish introduced the horse to the American Indian, the narrow end of the travois was attached to the collar of a dog. As dogs could drag only about fifty pounds, the adoption of horsepower gave the Plains Indians the ability to haul larger loads great distances. Thanks to the horse-drawn travois, the Plains Indians could have larger tipis, as tipi poles could be lashed together to form the frame of a travois.

In Plains Indian society, it was the responsibility of the women to move the children and all family possessions. It was women's job to bundle and unpack all personal belongings, plus tipi covers and buffalo robes, as well as to lash and unlash the travois. Women had the ability to take down and put up tipis in only a few minutes.

Annie Little Warrior has painted a procession of six horse-drawn travois. Although all of the horses are saddled, four of the six women are on foot leading the horses. One woman rides a horse and uses a lead line to guide an attached horse that is dragging a travois. Her daughter is seated on the travois horse. Another woman rides a travois-hauling horse, her daughter walking behind. The rider's legs are close to the horse's side so that the travois poles cover her legs. In the top left of Little Warrior's work, a brave and his son, followed by a dog, lead the procession, while two braves leaning on staffs follow behind. Although the braves wear the traditional Plains Indian dress, including feathers atop their heads, one carries a gun, which underlines this European contribution to the Plains Indian world.

The women wear traditional long dresses and moccasins and their hair is in braids. All of Little Warrior's images are two-dimensional and the figures all are in profile. Following the tradition of Plains Indian skin painting, there is neither background, foreground, nor landscape elements. There is no indication of location, season, or time of day. Among the Indian figures, men are the largest and children the smallest. Little Warrior carefully selected the poses of women and the horses, and she suggested motion by the positions of their feet.

Annie Little Warrior's name is at the bottom of the painting, written in a script that suggests someone with more sophisticated writing skills may have added the name. The acknowledgment of an individual artist is a tradition brought to the Indian world by the white man. In traditional Plains Indian society, those with artistic skills drew images or painted as an anonymous contribution to their people. The Plains Indian women traditionally used their skill to decorate domestic and ritual objects; there is no record of an individual recognized as an artist. As the signature is a prominent part of Little Warrior's artistic creation, it is evident that her identity as an artist had considerable significance. The signature reads: "Miss Annie Little Warrior," a European classification of this Plains Indian woman.


CARRIE CORNPLANTER

Seneca

INDIAN WOMAN POUNDING CORN

The watercolor paintings of Carrie Cornplanter are among the earliest known representations of traditional Native American life by an American Indian woman. Cornplanter, a young Seneca woman, was born in the 1880s. She is the older sister of Jesse Cornplanter, a Seneca author, illustrator, and painter as well as an important member of the Seneca community. He was chief of New Town, a village of the Snipe Clan; Ritual Chief of the Longhouse; and head singer of such major Seneca ceremonials as the Great Feather Dance. Carrie and Jesse were the last descendants of the Seneca leader, Cornplanter, who achieved renown in the days of George Washington.

In the traditional Seneca world, women occupied positions of great importance. Women owned the houses, fields, and crops, and all property, titles, and rights passed through the female line. All clans were divided into lineages. A lineage was a core of mothers, sisters, and daughters who comprised a "Longhouse family." Each Seneca village was a cluster of one hundred Longhouses. A matron, an older woman admired for her qualities of leadership and diplomacy, was the head of each lineage. Men held all official positions in the tribal government. Although they were the tribal chiefs, or sachems, women maintained control of the government because the matrons of each lineage chose the sachems, evaluated them, and, on occasion, warned the sachems of their errors. If necessary, the matrons asked the council to dispose of an unsatisfactory sachem, and when a sachem died, they selected his successor.

Among the primary duties of the matron was the coordination of the economic activities of the female members of her clan. Matrons organized and directed the women's work in the field and determined their contribution of food to public festivals and to charity. Traditionally, Seneca men cleared the land, while women prepared the land for planting, planted, cared for, then harvested the crops, and cooked the harvested food. Women also controlled the distribution of cooked food. Men never asked for food. When a husband returned home, regardless of the hour, his wife set a predetermined meal in front of him.

In precontact days, men provided food from the hunt and fishing, while women cultivated the fields and provided food collected in the wild. However, during times of war and during the period following white settlement in Seneca territory, the Seneca men concentrated on trapping and bartering beaver pelts for guns and ammunition. This change resulted in a shortage of game, which upset the balance of food production. Women, therefore, had to increase food cultivation.

The primary crops cultivated by Seneca women were corn or maize, squash, and beans. In years of prosperity, surplus crops were divided and stored for future use. Cornmeal was the primary ingredient of most Seneca cooking. Women's important contribution in providing food for the Seneca people was ritualized and celebrated in song and dance at the Green Corn and the Harvest Festivals.

In Indian Woman Pounding Corn, Carrie Cornplanter has painted an all-important chore of Seneca women, the production of cornmeal. Cornplanter depicts the traditional method of using a dumbbell-shaped pestle and a vertical log mortar to pound the corn. Cornplanter's woman stands next to a fire over which a pot is suspended. Although this work is not dated, Carrie Cornplanter completed the majority of her paintings in the period from the last decade of the nineteenth century to the first decade of the twentieth century.

Cornplanter's painting gives the viewer a glimpse of her Seneca community, the Cattaraugus Reservation. On the left, in the distance, is a Seneca log house and a woman pounding corn in front of the house. Over the horizon a coming storm gives the women a sense of urgency in completing their work. Cornplanter included a Seneca brave striding into the area where a woman is working. It is interesting to compare his naked-to-the-waist dress, which includes feathers in his hair, with the woman's Victorian costume, a dark ankle-length dress with long sleeves and a ribbon tying back her hair.


LOIS SMOKY (1907–1981)

KIOWA FAMILY

Lois Smoky was truly a pioneer American painter. One of the first Indian women to participate in a formal art education program, Smoky was one of five Kiowa artists featured in Kiowa Indian Art, the first book on American Indian painting. She also was a participant in the first nationwide museum tour focused on American Indian paintings. Born in 1907 near Anadarko, Oklahoma, Smoky was the descendant of generations of hunters and craft artists. She was the grand-niece of A'paitan, the last chief of the Kiowas.

Smoky was first encouraged to paint by Susie Peters, field matron at the St. Michael's Mission School in Anadarko. Peters, who taught many young Kiowa art students, believed that her protégés deserved training that she couldn't provide. She showed examples of their work to Oscar Jacobson, director of the art department at the University of Oklahoma, who recognized talent in Lois Smoky's work, as well as in the work of four other young Kiowas, Stephen Mopope, Monroe Tsa Toke, Jack Hokeah, and Spencer Asah. In 1923 he arranged for Edith Mahier, a professor of art at the University of Oklahoma, to give them instruction and criticism. Following Jacobson's instructions, Mahier encouraged them to "use no models, but draw from the memory of what they have seen and heard at the firesides and in the tipis of their camps." The five young Kiowa artists lived in a large house near the university, which Smoky's parents rented for them.

In 1928 the paintings of the Five Kiowas won acclaim as the most interesting part of the American entry at the International Congress of Folk Arts in Prague. The following year, Jacobson authored a book on Kiowa painting, Kiowa Indian Art. This book, which included a folio of thirty-two full-sized color reproductions of paintings by the Five Kiowas, was published by C. Szwedzicki in Nice, France. Following publication of his book, Jacobson arranged for the exhibition and sale of paintings by the Five Kiowas in art museums across the United States and in Hawaii. In 1950, Jacobson wrote a second book and folio of American Indian paintings, American Indian Painters, which included the work of major American Indian painters from across the United States. Lois Smoky's painting Mother and Babe was included in the 1950 edition. In his preface to this book, Jacobson wrote of the Five Kiowas:

The truly modern phase of modern Indian art began with the Kiowas, who are Plains Indians. They were the first to be able to develop their art without losing the essential elements of their tradition. They enriched it with a personal expression; they breathed life into the rigid and impassive figures of the past. They possess an extraordinary natural flair for color and for composition.


LOIS SMOKY (1907 – 1981)

Bou-ge-tah (Coming of the Dawn) • Kiowa

LULLABY

Traditionally, in the Plains Indian world, narrative painting was the domain of men, who painted figurative images on tipis and on skins which served as historical narratives, calendars, and winter counts. Women painted symbolic designs on crafts and clothing. For centuries craft arts and clothing were the domain of the Kiowa female. Lois Smoky was the first Kiowa woman to cross this historical barrier and follow a path of individual creativity. She again broke with tradition by becoming a participant in the Jacobson group of Five Kiowas. She was the first Plains Indian woman to work as a professional painter, exhibiting and selling her work at museums and local shops.

From the start, her male colleagues did not accept Smoky. Jacobson recalls:

While the first five Kiowas were in the university, there was noticeably, among the men, a certain resentment toward Lois for participating in such an unlady-like activity. The resentment found expression in several, small, unkind annoyances to her, even to the extent of mutilating her work.


Smoky worked with the Kiowa group for only a year before yielding to cultural and personal pressures. Her place in the Kiowa group was taken by James Auchiah. Smoky married, raised a family, and stopped painting.

During Smoky's lifetime, she completely lost her identity as a painter. For decades, the group known as the Five Kiowas was thought to be five men. Smoky was indeed one of the original Five Kiowas as documented by Jacobson. It is her work, not that of James Auchiah, that was published in Jacobson's 1929 volume, Kiowa Indian Art. In recent years, the work of Smoky has been rediscovered and rightfully appreciated. She now has taken her rightful place as the pioneer mother of Plains Indian painting.

During her brief artistic career, Smoky's favorite subject was the Kiowa mother and child. She came from a family in which generations of women had been celebrated for their skill in beadwork. In Lullaby, Smoky painted detailed images of the beautiful Kiowa beadwork of the cradleboard, the moccasins, and the mother's traditional two-piece buckskin dress, which is also distinguished by elegant beadwork.


TONITA PEÑA (1893 – 1949)

Quah Ah (White Coral Beads) • San Ildefonso Pueblo

PREPARING BLUE CORN, ca. 1930

Tonita Peña was the first woman from a Rio Grande Pueblo to paint the daily and ceremonial life of her people. Born in 1893 at the San Ildefonso Pueblo to Vigil and Navidad Peña, she was baptized Maria Antonia Peña. The third of four children, young Tonita attended the San Ildefonso Day School from 1899 until 1905. There, at age eight, she first was introduced to painting when an innovative teacher, Esther B. Hoyt, gave her students wax crayons and suggested that, since they all participated in Pueblo dances, they should think of dancing and recreate their thoughts in color.

One day a visitor to the day school, Dr. Edgar Hewett, a professor of archeology at the University of New Mexico and director of the School of American Research in Santa Fe, admired the crayon drawings of young Tonita Peña, furnished her with watercolors and papers, and encouraged her to paint the events of daily life at the pueblo. Her first watercolor images included women making and painting pottery, winnowing wheat, grinding corn, and dancing on feast days. Years later, Tonita Peña told artist Pablita Velarde: "I drew little figures and he liked them so I drew lots of them. I painted pictures of everything I could think of. I don't know what he did with them, but anyway he paid me money for them and kept me in paint and paper."

When Tonita was twelve years old, following the deaths of her mother and sister, her father decided to send her to Cochiti to live with her aunt and uncle, Martina Vigil and Florentino Montoya. In 1895 Maria Martinez, the renowned San Ildefonso potter, praised Martina Vigil, calling her the finest of present-day potters. Florentino Montoya won fame as a painter of pottery. The move was difficult for Tonita because she was away from her home and lifelong friends and because the people at Cochiti spoke Keres, a language different from the Tewa language spoken at the San Ildefonso Pueblo. As she adapted to life at a pueblo with new customs and rituals, she learned pottery making from her aunt, pottery painting from her uncle, and she continued to find joy in narrative painting. Many years later, her son, the artist Joe Herrera, remembered his mother telling him that whenever she included images of pottery in her paintings, they were copies of pots she had made and decorated.

For a short time, Tonita Peña attended St. Catherine's Indian School in Santa Fe; however, in 1908, when she was fourteen years old, her aunt and uncle called her back to Cochiti, for they had arranged for her to marry Juan Rosario Chavez. A year later she gave birth to a daughter and three years later a son. That year, her husband died and Tonita returned to her studies at St. Catherine's. The following year, however, her aunt and uncle arranged for Tonita to marry Filipe Herrera, and in 1920, the couple had a son, Joe. Later that same year, Filipe was killed in an accident at the iron mines where he worked.


(Continues...)

Excerpted from Earth Songs, Moon Dreams by Patricia Janis Broder. Copyright © 1999 Patricia Janis Broder. Excerpted by permission of St. Martin's Press.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Annie Little Warrior--Plains: Ceremony
Annie Little Warrior--Plains: Travois--Moving Camp
Carrie Cornplanter--Seneca: Indian Woman Pounding Corn
Lois Smoky--Kiowa: Kiowa Family
Lois Smoky--Kiowa: Lullaby
Tonita Pena--San Ildefonso Pueblo: Preparing Blue Corn, ca. 1930
Tonita Pena--San Ildefonso Pueblo: Ceremonial Dance
Tonita Pena--San Ildefonso Pueblo: Big Game Animal Dance, ca. 1925
Eva Mirabel--Taos Pueblo: Picking Wild Berries, 1940
Eva Mirabel--Taos Pueblo: Taos Woman Carrying Bread, 1958
Eva Mirabel--Taos Pueblo: Washing Wheat
Tonita Lujan--Taos Pueblo: Taos Women Husking Corn, 1934
Merina Lujan (Pop Chalee)--Taos Pueblo: the Forest, 1936
Merina Lujan (Pop Chalee)--Taos Pueblo: Forest Scene
Eloisa Bernal--Taos Pueblo: Taos Ragged Feather Dance, 1938
Margaret Lujan--Taos Pueblo: Taos Girl, 1945
Lorencita Bird Atencio--San Juan Pueblo: Harvest Dance
Lorencita Bird Atencio--San Juan Pueblo: Women Getting Water, 1935
Geronima Cruz Montoya--San Juan Pueblo: Basket Dancers, 1978
Geronima Cruz Montoya--San Juan Pueblo: Pueblo Crafts, 1938
Lolita Torivio--Acoma Pueblo: Acoma Woman Picking Chili, 1936
Cipriana Romero--Cochiti Pueblo: Cochiti Women Grinding Corn
Marcelina Herrera--Zia Pueblo: After the Deer Hunt, 1935
Eileen Lesarlley--Zuni: Zuni Girls with Ollas, 1935
Rufina Vigil--Tesuque Pueblo: Mass at Fiesta, 1936
Caroline Coriz--Tesuque Pueblo: Textile Pattern from an Acoma Pottery Motif, 1934
Pablita Velarde--Santa Clara Pueblo: Pueblo Craftsmen--Palace of the Governors, 1941
Pablita Velarde--Santa Clara Pueblo: Song of the Corn Dance
Pablita Velarde--Santa Clara Pueblo: Dance of the Avanyu and the Thunderbirds, 1955
Helen Hardin--Santa Clara Pueblo: Winter Awakening of the O-Khoo-Wah, 1972
Helen Hardin--Santa Clara Pueblo: Mimbres Rabbit
Helen Hardin--Santa Clara Pueblo: Prayers of a Harmonious Chorus, 1976
Margarete Bagshaw-Tindel--Santa Clara Pueblo: Twilight Meets Dawn, 1995
Maxine Gachupin--Jemez Pueblo: Two Masked Dancers, 1968
Geraldine Gutierrez--Santa Clara Pueblo/San Ildefonso Pueblo: Pottery Spirits
Michelle Tsosie Naranjo--Santa Clara Pueblo Navajo Laguna Mission: the Fall is Ending Sisters
Sybil Yazzie--Navajo: A Crowd at a Navajo N'Da-A, 1935
Sybil Yazzie--Navajo: Navajo Wedding, 1936
Sybil Yazzie--Navajo: Navajo Weavers, 1935
Mary Ellen--Navajo: Yeibichi Dance, 1930S
Rosalie James--Navajo: Night Singers And Drummer, 1936
Beverly Blacksheep--Navajo: Navajoland, Ca. 1990
Jeanette Katoney--Navajo: Beauty of the Clouds, 1995
Mary Morez--Navajo: Father Sky. 1969
Mary Morez--Navajo: Origin Legend of the Navajo, 1969
Laura G. Shurley--Navajo: Authentic Indian Curios, 196
Laura G. Shurley--Navajo: Dine Dichotomy, 1989
Emmi Whitehorse--Navajo: Silent Observer, 1991
Lucille Hyeoma--Hopi: Sun Bird, 1966
Jeneele Numkena--Hopi: Hopi Harvest Ceremony, 1995
Otellie Loloma--Hopi: Nature's Altar, ca. 1950
Otellie Loloma--Hopi: Hopi Symbols, ca. 1950
Yeffie Kimball--Osage: Zuni Maiden, 1939
Yeffie Kimball--Osage: Old Medicine Man, ca. 1959
Linda Lomahaftewa--Hopi/Choctaw: Hopi Spirits, 1965
Linda Lomahaftewa--Hopi/Choctaw: Morning Prayer, 1989
Marian Terasaz--Comanche: Comanche Girl
Marian Terasaz--Comanche: Women Drying Hide, 1938
Diane O'Leary--Comanche: The Walking Wheel, ca. 1970
Diane O'Leary--Comanche: Moon Walker, Late 1970s
Jean Bales--Iowa: Iowa Woman
Marlene Mary Riding In--Pawnee: Morning Star Ceremony, ca. 1950
Ruthe Blalock Jones--Delaware: Delaware Woman With Ceremonial Doll, 1984
Ruthe Blalock Jones--Delaware: Shawl Dancers, 1981
Agnes Gough--Cherokee: Eskimo Ceremonial Dancers, ca. 1952
Connie Jenkins--Cherokee: Generations of Motherhood, 1996
Joan Brown--Cherokee: Ancestral Prayer
Mary Adair (Horsechief)--Cherokee: Selu, 1993
Jeanne Walker Rorex--Cherokee: Trail Sisters, 1991
Joan Hill--Creek/Cherokee: Morning of the Council, 1971
Joan Hill--Creek/Cherokee: Evening at the Pueblo, 1967
Jimalee Burton--Cherokee/Creek: Buffalo Dance, ca. 1947
Dana Tiger--Creek/Seminole/Cherokee: Patrol of the Lighthorse, 1990
Jimmie Carole Fifestewart--Creek: Studying the Treaty, 1967
Minisa Crumbo--Creek/Potawatomi: The Pueblo Dress, 1976
Brenda Kennedy--Citizen Potawatomi: Provisions, 1976
Brenda Kennedy--Citizen Potawatomi: One Sunday at Shawnee, 1979
Norma Howard--Choctaw/Chickasaw: Doorway to the Past, 1996
Dolona Roberts--Cherokee/Choctaw: Beautiful Blankets, 1985
Dyanne Strongbow--Choctaw: Her Flock, 1981
Mary C. Young--Choctaw: Bear Dance, 1965
Valjean McCarty Hessing--Choctaw: Choctaw Removal, 1966
Valjean Mccarty Hessing--Choctaw: Choctaw Mourning Rites
Valjean Mccarty Hessing--Choctaw: The Capture of the Crawfish Band, 1974
Jane McCarty Mauldin--Choctaw: Prayer, 1972
Christine Musgrave--Osage: Bear Dance, 1990
Anita Luttrell--Osage: Osage Woman, 1973
Gina Gray--Osage: The Return of the Clan Seekers, 1994
Mary Gay Osceola--Seminole: Seminole Dance, 1962
Mary Gay Osceola--Seminole: Seminole Mothers and Children
Agnes Bird--Chieppewa: Chippewa Woman Stripping Birch Bark
Sharon Burnette--Chippewa: Portrait of a Lady, 1967
Alice Loiselle--Chippewa: Nine People, One Dog, 1968
Carol Snow--Seneca: Night Singer, 1990
Lisa A. Fifield--Oneida/Iriquois: The Woodlands Loon Woman, 1997
Bonita Wawa Calachaw--Luiseno: Chief Runs Them All, 1947
Judith Lowrey--Mountain Maidu/Pit River: Wilis-Kol-Kold (Susie Jack), ca. 1985
Karen Noble--Kuruk/Chimariko: The Flood, ca. 1985
Evelyn Teton--Shoshone/Bannock: Bannock Madonna and Child, 1968
Peggy Deam--Squamish: Metis of Montana, 1969
Yvonne Thomas--Lummi: Beaver People, 1980
Joane Cardinal-Schubert--Blood/Blackfeet: Minus Bear Solution
Edna Davis Jackson--Tlingit: Ka-Oosh and Coho Salmon, 1980
Kenojuak Ashevak--Inuit (Cape Dorset): Woman With Animals
Keeleemeeoome Samualie--Inuit (Cape Dorset): Spirits With Char
Jessie Oonark--Inuit (Baker Lake): Ice Fishing
Janet Kigusiuq--Inuit (Baker Lake): Winter Camp Life, 1979
Victoria Mamnguqsualuk--Inuit (Baker Lake): Shaman Caribou
Roberta A. Whiteshield--Cheyenne/Arapaho: White Mountain Apache Fire Dancers, ca. 1970
Rosebud Tahcawin De Cinq Mars--Hunkpapa/Brule Sioux: Alo'Wampi Ceremony, ca. 1940
Laurie Houseman-Whitehawk--Winnebago/Santee-Sioux: Our Past, Our Future, Our Elders, 1991
Judy Mike--Winnebago: Three Women, 1964
Sharron Ahtone Harjo--Kiowa: We Had Plenty, 1984
Connie Red Star--Crow: Crow Parfleche, 1967
Nadema Agard--Lakota/Cherokee/Powhatan: Homage to Plains Womanhood, 1984
Charlene Teters--Spokane: Turtle Sisters, 1988
Phyllis Fife--Muscogee (Creek): Buffalo Two Chips, 1973
Kay Walkingstick--Cherokee/Winnebago: Where Are The Generations?, 1991
Kay Walkingstick--Cherokee/Winnebago: Ourselves, Our Land, 1992
Jaune Quick-To-See Smith--French Cree/Shoshoni/Flathead/Kootenai: Buffalo, 1992
Note
Bibliography
Acknowledgments

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