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Facts on File, Incorporated
Earth Science: Decade by Decade

Earth Science: Decade by Decade

by Christina Reed


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Twentieth-Century Science is a seven-volume set that explores, decade by decade, how science developed throughout the 20th century and examines the paths science may take during the 21st century. Designed to complement science curricula, the books are a fascinating narrative of the recent advances in science and technology and their far-reaching influence.

Earth Science chronicles the history of this scientific discipline from 1901, documenting the significant discoveries of the 20th century by notable Earth and other scientists.

The volume covers the following: geologic history, advances in, crustal dynamics, evolution and opposition, exploring the Earth's inner layers, the atomic age, space exploration, oceanography and marine science, advances in, volcanic activities, their worldwide impact, greenhouse gases, medical geology. Each chapter in Earth Science features milestones of significant events, sidebars that clarify scientific concepts, a "Scientist of the Decade" essay that focuses on a notable individual or event, and a list of print and Internet resources reflecting the time period. The book includes more than 70 photographs and line illustrations, a conclusion that looks at 21st-century issues, the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale, an appendix of awards of merit in Earth science, a glossary, a list of general print and Internet resources, and an index.

The Twentieth-Century Science set is essential for middle and high school students, teachers, and general readers who seek comprehensive information on recent scientific history and its effect on future advancements in science.

About the Author:
Christina Reed is a freelance science journalist whoseclients include Scientific American, New Scientist, and the Discovery Science Channel

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780816055333
Publisher: Facts on File, Incorporated
Publication date: 03/28/2008
Series: Twentieth-Century Science Series
Pages: 384
Product dimensions: 7.40(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.10(d)
Age Range: 12 - 17 Years

Table of Contents

Preface     xi
Acknowledgments     xv
Introduction     xvii
1901-1910: Earth Inside Out     1
Introduction     1
Introducing Tyrannosaurus rex     2
Milestones     2
A Dinosaur Identity Crisis     8
Naming Geologic History     10
Dating a Radioactive Planet     12
The 20th Century's Deadliest Eruption     17
Seismic Solutions Reveal Earth's Core     19
The 1906 California Earthquake     25
Scientist of the Decade: Bertram Borden Boltwood (1870-1927)     26
Further Reading     28
1911-1920: Crustal Dynamics     33
Introduction     33
The World Under Pressure     34
Milestones     34
Maintaining Gravitational Equilibrium     38
Putting the Time into the Geologic Timescale     42
Continental Drift     44
Scientist of the Decade: Charles Doolittle Walcott (1850-1927)     46
Further Reading     52
1921-1930: Evolution and Opposition     57
Introduction     57
Milestones     58
Taung Child     61
The Scopes Monkey Trial     63
Evolution of Rocks     66
The Secret Ancient Life of Trees     69
Scientist of the Decade: Alfred Wegener (1880-1930)     71
Further Reading     75
1931-1940: Exploring Inner Earth     79
Introduction     79
A Fluid Core     79
Milestones     80
Earthquake Intensities     82
Determining Earthquake Magnitude: The Richter Scale     85
Earth's (Solid) Inner Core     89
Scientist of the Decade: Inge Lehmann (1888-1993)     90
Further Reading     92
1941-1950: The Atomic Age     95
Introduction     95
Milankovitch Cycles     96
Milestones     96
Finding the Source of the Magnetic Field     100
Cosmic Rays     104
Radiocarbon Dating     105
Scientist of the Decade: Arthur Holmes (1890-1965)     112
Further Reading     115
1951-1960: Earth and Space     119
Introduction     119
Man-made Moons     120
Milestones     120
Radiation Belts     125
Crossing Antarctica and the Treaty of 1959     127
The Buildup to Success in Antarctica     129
Precambrian Fossils     131
Scientist of the Decade: Clair Cameron Patterson (1922-1995)     136
Further Reading     139
1961-1970: A New Planetary Perspective     145
Introduction     145
Earth's Magnetic Reversals     146
Milestones     146
Seafloor Spreading     153
Revisiting Wegener's Theory     154
Plate Tectonics     162
Scientist of the Decade: John Tuzo Wilson (1908-1993)     166
Further Reading     169
1971-1980: Fire and Water     175
Introduction     175
Milestones     176
Keeping Track of a Changing Planet     177
Fighting a Volcano     183
Soufriere Eruption Crisis in Guadeloupe     186
Hydrothermal Vents     188
Cascade Concerns     190
Mount St. Helens     192
Scientists of the Decade: U.S. Geological Survey Scientists     202
Further Reading     204
1981-1990: A Watchful Planet     209
Introduction     209
Milestones     210
The Deadly Snow of Ruiz     211
Finding the Faults of New Madrid     218
Scientists of the Decade: Luis (1911-1988) and Walter Alvarez (b. 1940)     220
Further Reading     227
1991-2000: The Information Age     231
Introduction     231
Milestones     232
Mount Pinatubo: A Volcano Hiding in Plain Sight     233
Acceptable Risk: Living with a Known Hazard     236
Moment Magnitude     247
Snowball Earth     250
Greenhouse Gases     257
Scientist of the Decade: Pamela Anne Matson (b. 1953)     265
Further Reading     266
Conclusion: Into the Twenty-First Century     273
Volcanoes     276
The Twenty-First Century's Largest and Deadliest Earthquakes     279
Earth's Freshwater and Deserts     280
Medical Geology     282
Earth's Interior     283
Paleoclimate from Caves and Lightning Bolts     286
Summary     287
Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale     289
Awards of Merit in Earth Science     291
Glossary     327
Further Resources     335
Index     345

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