ISBN-10:
0309065542
ISBN-13:
9780309065542
Pub. Date:
07/15/2000
Publisher:
National Academies Press
Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline / Edition 1

Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline / Edition 1

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Overview

Since 1941, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) has been recognized as the most authoritative source of information on nutrient levels for healthy people. Since publication of the 10th edition in 1989, there has been rising awareness of the impact of nutrition on chronic disease. In light of new research findings and a growing public focus on nutrition and health, the expert panel responsible for formulation RDAs reviewed and expanded its approach—the result: Dietary Reference Intakes.



This new series of references greatly extends the scope and application of previous nutrient guidelines. For each nutrient the book presents what is known about how the nutrient functions in the human body, what the best method is to determine its requirements, which factors (caffeine or exercise, for example) may affect how it works, and how the nutrient may be related to chronic disease.



This volume of the series presents information about thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.



Based on analysis of nutrient metabolism in humans and data on intakes in the U.S. population, the committee recommends intakes for each age group—from the first days of life through childhood, sexual maturity, midlife, and the later years. Recommendations for pregnancy and lactation also are made, and the book identifies when intake of a nutrient may be too much. Representing a new paradigm for the nutrition community, Dietary Reference Intakes encompasses:



  • Estimated Average Requirements (EARs). These are used to set Recommended Dietary Allowances.
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). Intakes that meet the RDA are likely to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all individuals in a life-stage and gender group.
  • Adequate Intakes (AIs). These are used instead of RDAs when an EAR cannot be calculated. Both the RDA and the AI may be used as goals for individual intake.
  • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs). Intakes below the UL are unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects in healthy people.

This new framework encompasses both essential nutrients and other food components thought to pay a role in health, such as dietary fiber. It incorporates functional endpoints and examines the relationship between dose and response in determining adequacy and the hazards of excess intake for each nutrient.


Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780309065542
Publisher: National Academies Press
Publication date: 07/15/2000
Series: Dietary Reference Intakes Series
Pages: 592
Sales rank: 1,057,947
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

Summary 1(1)
What Are Dietary Reference Intakes?
2(4)
Comparison of Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes
6(1)
Approach for Setting Dietary Reference Intakes
6(6)
Criteria and Proposed Values for Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
12(2)
Using Dietary Reference Intakes to Assess the Nutrient Intake of Groups
14(1)
How to Meet Recommended Dietary Allowances or Adequate Intakes
14(1)
Recommendations
15(2)
Introduction to Dietary Reference Intakes
17(10)
What Are Dietary Reference Intakes?
17(1)
Categories of Dietary Reference Intakes
18(5)
Parameters for Dietary Reference Intakes
23(3)
Summary
26(1)
References
26(1)
The B Vitamins and Choline: Overview and Methods
27(14)
Overview
27(1)
Methodological Considerations
28(6)
Estimates of Laboratory Values
34(1)
Estimates of Nutrient Intake
35(1)
Dietary Intakes in the United States and Canada
36(2)
Summary
38(1)
References
38(3)
A Model for the Development of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
41(17)
Background
41(1)
A Model for the Derivation of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
42(1)
Risk Assessment and Food Safety
42(5)
Application of the Risk Assessment Model to Nutrients
47(3)
Steps in the Development of the Tolerable Upper Intake Level
50(6)
References
56(2)
Thiamin
58(29)
Summary
58(1)
Background Information
58(2)
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Thiamin
60(2)
Factors Affecting the Thiamin Requirement
62(3)
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group
65(14)
Intake of Thiamin
79(2)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
81(1)
Research Recommendations for Thiamin
82(1)
References
83(4)
Riboflavin
87(36)
Summary
87(1)
Background Information
87(3)
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Riboflavin
90(5)
Factors Affecting the Riboflavin Requirement
95(2)
Approaches for Deriving the Estimated Average Requirement
97(6)
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group
103(10)
Intake of Riboflavin
113(2)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
115(2)
Research Recommendations for Riboflavin
117(1)
References
117(6)
Niacin
123(27)
Summary
123(1)
Background Information
123(3)
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Niacin
126(2)
Factors Affecting the Niacin Requirement
128(2)
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group
130(7)
Intake of Niacin
137(1)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
138(7)
Research Recommendations for Niacin
145(1)
References
145(5)
Vitamin B6
150(46)
Summary
150(1)
Background Information
150(4)
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Vitamin B6
154(6)
Factors Affecting the Vitamin B6 Requirement
160(4)
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group
164(15)
Intake of Vitamin B6
179(3)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
182(6)
Research Recommendations for Vitamin B6
188(1)
References
188(8)
Folate
196(110)
Summary
196(1)
Background Information
197(3)
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Folate
200(5)
Methodological Issues
205(2)
Factors Affecting the Folate Requirement
207(7)
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group
214(26)
Reducing Risk of Developmental Disorders and Chronic Degenerative Disease
240(29)
Intake of Folate
269(4)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
273(10)
Research Recommendations for Folate
283(1)
References
284(22)
Vitamin B12
306(51)
Summary
306(1)
Background Information
307(5)
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Vitamin B12
312(3)
Methodological Issues
315(1)
Diagnosis
316(2)
Factors Affecting the Vitamin B12 Requirement
318(4)
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group
322(20)
Intake of Vitamin B12
342(4)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
346(2)
Research Recommendations for Vitamin B12
348(1)
References
348(9)
Pantothenic Acid
357(17)
Summary
357(1)
Background Information
357(2)
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Pantothenic Acid
359(2)
Factors Affecting the Pantothenic Acid Requirement
361(1)
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group
362(6)
Intake of Pantothenic Acid
368(2)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
370(1)
Research Recommendations for Pantothenic Acid
371(1)
References
371(3)
Biotin
374(16)
Summary
374(1)
Background Information
374(4)
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Biotin
378(2)
Factors Affecting the Biotin Requirement
380(1)
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group
380(4)
Intake of Biotin
384(1)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
384(1)
Research Recommendations for Biotin
385(1)
References
386(4)
Choline
390(33)
Summary
390(1)
Background Information
390(6)
Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Choline
396(2)
Factors Affecting the Choline Requirement
398(2)
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group
400(6)
Intake of Choline
406(2)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
408(5)
Research Recommendations for Choline
413(1)
References
414(9)
Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes
423(14)
Overview
423(1)
Using Recommended Dietary Allowances
424(1)
Using Adequate Intakes
425(1)
Using Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
426(1)
Using Estimated Average Requiements
427(5)
Other Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes
432(1)
Specific Applications
432(3)
Summary
435(1)
References
436(1)
A Research Agenda
437(104)
Approach
437(1)
Important Features of Studies to Estimate Requirements
438(1)
Major Knowledge Gaps
439(3)
The Research Agenda
442(1)
Appendixes:
A Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes
443(5)
B Acknowledgments
448(3)
C Systeme International d'Unites
451(2)
D Search Strategies
453(3)
E Methodological Problems Associated with Laboratory Values and Food Composition Data for B Vitamins
456(4)
F Dietary Intake Data from the Boston Nutritional Status Survey, 1981-1984
460(6)
G Dietary Intake Data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994--1995
466(12)
H Dietary Intake Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988--1994
478(24)
I Daily Intakes of B Vitamins by Canadian Men and Women, 1990, 1993
502(5)
J Options for Dealing with Uncertainties in Developing Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
507(5)
K Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988--1994
512(8)
L Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase
520(3)
M Evidence from Animal Studies on the Etiology of Neural Tube Defects
523(4)
N Estimation of the Period Covered by Vitamin B12 Stores
527(4)
O Biographical Sketches
531(6)
P Glossary and Abbreviations
537(4)
Index 541(25)
Summary Table, Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals 566

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