ISBN-10:
0309064031
ISBN-13:
9780309064033
Pub. Date:
10/01/1999
Publisher:
National Academies Press
Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride / Edition 1

Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride / Edition 1

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Overview

Since 1941, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) has been recognized as the most authoritative source of information on nutrient levels for healthy people. Since publication of the 10th edition in 1989, there has been rising awareness of the impact of nutrition on chronic disease. In light of new research findings and a growing public focus on nutrition and health, the expert panel responsible for formulation RDAs reviewed and expanded its approach—the result: Dietary Reference Intakes.



This new series of references greatly extends the scope and application of previous nutrient guidelines. For each nutrient the book presents what is known about how the nutrient functions in the human body, what the best method is to determine its requirements, which factors (caffeine or exercise, for example) may affect how it works, and how the nutrient may be related to chronic disease.



The first volume of Dietary Reference Intakes includes calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. The second book in the series presents information about thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.



Based on analysis of nutrient metabolism in humans and data on intakes in the U.S. population, the committee recommends intakes for each age group—from the first days of life through childhood, sexual maturity, midlife, and the later years. Recommendations for pregnancy and lactation also are made, and the book identifies when intake of a nutrient may be too much. Representing a new paradigm for the nutrition community, Dietary Reference Intakes encompasses:



  • Estimated Average Requirements (EARs). These are used to set Recommended Dietary Allowances.
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). Intakes that meet the RDA are likely to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all individuals in a life-stage and gender group.
  • Adequate Intakes (AIs). These are used instead of RDAs when an EAR cannot be calculated. Both the RDA and the AI may be used as goals for individual intake.
  • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs). Intakes below the UL are unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects in healthy people.

This new framework encompasses both essential nutrients and other food components thought to pay a role in health, such as dietary fiber. It incorporates functional endpoints and examines the relationship between dose and response in determining adequacy and the hazards of excess intake for each nutrient.


Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780309064033
Publisher: National Academies Press
Publication date: 10/01/1999
Series: Dietary Reference Intakes Series
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 448
Sales rank: 1,057,988
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

SUMMARY 1(20)
1 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES
21(17)
Introduction
21(1)
What Are Dietary Reference Intakes?
21(2)
Categories of DRIs
23(4)
Uses of Dietary References Intakes
27(1)
Comparison with Other Countries
28(3)
Parameters for Dietary Reference Intakes
31(6)
Summary
37(1)
2 CALCIUM AND RELATED NUTRIENTS: OVERVIEW AND METHODS
38(13)
Overview
38(1)
Methodological Considerations
39(3)
Nutrient Intake Estimates
42(1)
Dietary Intakes in the United States and Canada
43(5)
Use of Adequate Intake Rather Than Estimated Average Requirement
48(3)
3 A MODEL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS
51(20)
Background Information
51(1)
A Model for Derivation of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
52(1)
Risk Assessment and Food Safety
53(5)
Application of the Risk Assessment Model to Nutrients
58(4)
Steps in the Development of the UL
62(7)
Glossary
69(2)
4 CALCIUM
71(75)
Background Information
71(13)
Estimating Requirements for Calcium
84(7)
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group
91(43)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
134(10)
Research Recommendations
144(2)
5 PHOSPHORUS
146(44)
Background Information
146(12)
Estimating Requirements for Phosphorus
158(2)
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group
160(20)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
180(9)
Research Recommendations
189(1)
6 MAGNESIUM
190(60)
Background Information
190(12)
Estimating Requirements for Magnesium
202(6)
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group
208(34)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
242(6)
Research Recommendations
248(2)
7 VITAMIN D
250(38)
Background Information
250(9)
Estimating Requirements for Vitamin D
259(4)
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group
263(15)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
278(8)
Research Recommendations
286(2)
8 FLUORIDE
288(26)
Background Information
288(10)
Estimating Requirements for Fluoride
298(3)
Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group
301(5)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
306(7)
Research Recommendations
313(1)
9 USES OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES
314(11)
Overview
314(1)
Using Recommended Dietary Allowances
315(2)
Using Adequate Intakes
317(1)
Using Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
317(2)
Using Estimated Average Requirements
319(4)
Other Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes
323(1)
Addressing Discrepancies Between Usual Intake and the AI
324(1)
Summary
324(1)
REFERENCES 325(50)
APPENDIXES 375(38)
A Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes 375(6)
B Acknowledgments 381(2)
C Options for Dealing with Uncertainties 383(4)
D 1994 CSFII Adjusted Data for Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium 387(7)
E Model for Estimating Calcium Intake for Desirable Calcium Retention 394(5)
F Biographical Sketches of Committee, Subcommittee, Panel Members and Staff 399(14)
INDEX 413

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