ISBN-10:
9048132002
ISBN-13:
9789048132003
Pub. Date:
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Defending Copernicus and Galileo: Critical Reasoning in the Two Affairs

Defending Copernicus and Galileo: Critical Reasoning in the Two Affairs

by Maurice A. Finocchiaro

Hardcover(2009)

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Overview

Although recent works on Galileo's trial have reached new heights of erudition, documentation, and sophistication, they often exhibit inflated complexities, neglect 400 years of historiography, or make little effort to learn from Galileo. This book strives to avoid such lacunae by judiciously comparing and contrasting the two Galileo affairs, that is, the original controversy over the earth's motion ending with his condemnation by the Inquisition in 1633, and the subsequent controversy over the rightness of that condemnation continuing to our day. The book argues that the Copernican Revolution required that the hypothesis of the earth's motion be not only constructively supported with new reasons and evidence, but also critically defended from numerous old and new objections. This defense in turn required not only the destructive refutation, but also the appreciative understanding of those objections in all their strength. A major Galilean accomplishment was to elaborate such a reasoned, critical, and fair-minded defense of Copernicanism. Galileo's trial can be interpreted as a series of ecclesiastic attempts to stop him from so defending Copernicus. And an essential thread of the subsequent controversy has been the emergence of many arguments claiming that his condemnation was right, as well as defenses of
Galileo from such criticisms. The book's particular yet overarching thesis is that today the proper defense of Galileo can and should have the reasoned, critical, and fair-minded character which his own defense of Copernicus had.



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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789048132003
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Publication date: 02/05/2010
Series: Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science , #280
Edition description: 2009
Pages: 350
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.03(d)

Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments ix

Introduction: A Galilean Approach to the Galileo Affair xiii

Part I Defending Copernicus 1

1 The Geostatic World View 3

1.1 Terminology 3

1.2 Cosmology 4

1.3 Physics 10

1.4 Astronomy 12

2 The Copernican Controversy 21

2.1 Copernicus's Innovation 21

2.2 The Anti-Copernican Arguments 24

2.3 Responses to Copernicanism 34

3 Galileo's Stances Toward Copernican Astronomy 37

3.1 Historical Testing of Methodological Models 37

3.2 Conceptual Clarifications 38

3.3 Historiographical Considerations 43

3.4 Periodization 45

3.5 Indirect Pursuit (Before 1609) 46

3.6 Full-Hedged Pursuit (1609-1616) 51

3.7 The Post-1616 Period 61

3.8 Conclusion 63

4 Galilean Critiques of the Biblical Objection 65

4.1 Preliminary Considerations 65

4.2 Copernicanism and Scripture 69

4.3 Ingoli 72

4.4 Foscarini 76

4.5 Galileo 79

4.6 Campanella 89

4.7 Conclusion 93

5 Galileo on the Mathematical Physics of Terrestrial Extrusion 97

5.1 Introduction 97

5.2 The Extruding Power of Whirling 99

5.3 Restatement of the Anti-Copernican Argument 101

5.4 Tangential Extrusion Versus Secant Fall 102

5.5 Linear Versus Angular Speed 103

5.6 Physical Processes Versus Mathematical Entities 105

5.7 Escape Extrusion Versus Orbital Extrusion 106

5.8 Exsecants Versus Tangents, or Achilles and the Tortoise 108

5.9 Distance Fallen, Distance To Be Fallen, and Speeds of Fall 112

5.10 Exsecants Versus Exsecants 113

5.11 A Definition of Physical-Mathematical Reasoning 114

5.12 Galileo-s Reflections on Physical-Mathematical Reasoning 115

6 Galilean Rationality in the Copernican Revolution 121

6.1 The Copernican Revolution and the Role of Criticism 121

6.2 Copernicus and Explanatory Coherence 123

6.3 Physics and Reasoning 124

6.4 The Telescope and the Role of Judgment 129

6.5 Critical Reasoning 132

Part II Defending Galileo 135

7 The Trial of Galileo, 1613-1633 137

7.1 The Earlier Proceedings and the Condemnation of Copernicanism 138

7.2 The Later Proceedings and the Condemnation of Galileo 143

8 The Galileo Affair, 1633-1992 155

8.1 The Condemnation of Galileo (1633) 156

8.2 Diffusion of the News (1633-1651) 161

8.3 Emblematic Reactions (1633-1642) 163

8.4 Polarizations (1633-1661) 166

8.5 Compromises (1654-1704) 171

8.6 Myth-making or Enlightenment? (1709-1777) 175

8.7 Incompetence or Enlightenment? (1740-1758) 179

8.8 New Criticism (1770-1797) 185

8.9 Napoleonic Wars and Trials (1810-1821) 188

8.10 The Settele Affair (1820) 190

8.11 The Torture Question and the Demythologizing Approach (1835-1867) 195

8.12 The Documentation of Impropriety (1867-1879) 198

8.13 Theological Developments (1893-1912) 203

8.14 Tricentennial Rehabilitation (1941-1947) 207

8.15 Secular Indictments (1947-1959) 211

8.16 The Paschini Affair (1941-1979) 216

8.17 John Paul II's Rehabilitation (1979-1992) 220

9 Galileo Right for the Wrong Reasons? 229

9.1 The Problem 229

9.2 The Dialogue and Its Critics 235

9.3 The Letter to Christina and Its Critics 243

9.4 Conclusion 248

10 Galileo as a Bad Theologian? 251

10.1 Relative Calm (1633-1784) 252

10.2 Mallet du Pan's Thesis (1784) 254

10.3 Text of an Apocryphal Letter (1785) 256

10.4 Gaetani's Forgery 258

10.5 Diffusion and Development of a Myth (1790-1908) 260

10.6 Metamorphosis of the Myth (1909-1959) 273

10.7 Demise of the Myth (1979-1992) 274

10.8 Conclusion 275

11 Galileo as a Bad Epistemologist? 277

11.1 Introduction: Duhem on Saving the Phenomena 277

11.2 Unificationism 280

11.3 The Condemnation of Galileo 281

11.4 Metaphysics 282

11.5 Biblical Authority 284

11.6 Certainty 286

11.7 Proof Strategies 287

11.8 Conclusion 289

12 Galileo as a Symbol of Science Versus Religion? 291

12.1 The "Interaction" Between "Science" and "Religion" 291

12.2 Conflictual Accounts 293

12.3 John Paul II-s Harmony Thesis 296

12.4 Morpurgo-Tagliabue's Version of Harmony 298

12.5 Feyerabend's Version of Conflict 300

12.6 Heresy or Disobedience? 301

12.7 Science Versus Religion in the Subsequent Affair? 305

12.8 Conclusion 313

Selected Bibliography 315

Index 339

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