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CompTIA Linux+ Powered by Linux Professional Institute Study Guide: Exam LX0-103 and Exam LX0-104 , 3rd Edition / Edition 3

CompTIA Linux+ Powered by Linux Professional Institute Study Guide: Exam LX0-103 and Exam LX0-104 , 3rd Edition / Edition 3

by Christine Bresnahan, Richard Blum
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CompTIA Authorized Linux+ prep

CompTIA Linux+ Study Guide
is your comprehensive study guide for the Linux+ Powered by LPI certification exams. With complete coverage of 100% of the objectives on both exam LX0-103 and exam LX0-104, this study guide provides clear, concise information on all aspects of Linux administration, with a focus on the latest version of the exam. You'll gain the insight of examples drawn from real-world scenarios, with detailed guidance and authoritative coverage of key topics, including GNU and Unix commands, system operation, system administration, system services, security, and more, from a practical perspective that easily translates into on-the-job know-how. You'll also get access to helpful study tools, including bonus practice exams, electronic flashcards, and a searchable glossary of key terms that are important to know for exam day.

Linux is viewed by many companies and organizations as an excellent, low-cost, secure alternative to expensive operating systems such as Microsoft Windows. The CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI exams test a candidate's understanding and familiarity with the Linux Kernel.

  • Review the basic system architecture, installation, and management
  • Understand commands, devices, and file systems
  • Utilize shells, scripting, and data management techniques
  • Navigate user interfaces, desktops, and essential system services

As the Linux server market share continue to grow, so too does the demand for qualified and certified Linux administrators. Certification holders must recertify every five years, but LPI recommends recertifying every two years to stay fully up to date with new technologies and best practices. CompTIA Linux+ Study Guide gives you the advantage of exam day confidence.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781119021216
Publisher: Wiley
Publication date: 04/27/2015
Edition description: Study Guide
Pages: 688
Sales rank: 85,085
Product dimensions: 7.30(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.60(d)

About the Author

Christine Bresnahan, CompTIA Linux+, LPIC-1, started working with computers more than 25 years ago in the IT industry as a systems administrator. Christine is an Adjunct Professor at Ivy Tech Community College where she teaches Linux certification and Python programming classes. She also writes books and produces instructional resources for the classroom. Richard Blum, CompTIA Linux+, LPIC-1, has worked in the IT industry for more than 25 years as both a systems and network administrator. He has published numerous Linux and open-source books, and is an online instructor for Linux and Web programming courses used by colleges and universities across the United States.

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Table of Contents

Introduction xxi

Assessment Test xxxix

Answers to the Assessment Test xlvi

Part I Exam LX0-103 1

Chapter 1 Exploring Linux Command-Line Tools 3

Understanding Command-Line Basics 4

Exploring Your Linux Shell Options 4

Using a Shell 5

Exploring Shell Configuration 13

Using Environment Variables 13

Getting Help 14

Using Streams, Redirection, and Pipes 16

Exploring File Descriptors 17

Redirecting Input and Output 17

Piping Data between Programs 19

Generating Command Lines 20

Processing Text Using Filters 22

File-Combining Commands 22

File-Transforming Commands 24

File-Formatting Commands 28

File-Viewing Commands 31

File-Summarizing Commands 33

Using Regular Expressions 35

Understanding Regular Expressions 35

Using grep 36

Using sed 38

Summary 41

Exam Essentials 41

Review Questions 42

Chapter 2 Managing Software 47

Package Concepts 48

Using RPM 50

RPM Distributions and Conventions 50

The rpm Command Set 52

Extracting Data from RPMs 56

Using Yum 57

RPM and Yum Configuration Files 61

RPM Compared to Other Package Formats 62

Using Debian Packages 63

Debian Distributions and Conventions 63

The dpkg Command Set 64

Using apt-cache 67

Using apt-get 68

Using dselect, aptitude, and Synaptic 72

Reconfiguring Packages 73

Debian Packages Compared to Other Package Formats 73

Configuring Debian Package Tools 74

Converting between Package Formats 75

Package Dependencies and Conflicts 77

Real and Imagined Package Dependency Problems 77

Workarounds for Package Dependency Problems 78

Startup Script Problems 80

Managing Shared Libraries 81

Library Principles 81

Locating Library Files 83

Library Management Commands 85

Managing Processes 87

Understanding the Kernel: The First Process 88

Examining Process Lists 88

Understanding Foreground and Background Processes 95

Managing Process Priorities 96

Killing Processes 97

Summary 99

Exam Essentials 99

Review Questions 101

Chapter 3 Configuring Hardware 107

Configuring the Firmware and Core Hardware 108

Understanding the Role of the Firmware 108

IRQs 112

I/O Addresses 115

DMA Addresses 116

Boot Disks and Geometry Settings 117

Coldplug and Hotplug Devices 119

Configuring Expansion Cards 120

Configuring PCI Cards 121

Learning about Kernel Modules 122

Loading Kernel Modules 124

Removing Kernel Modules 125

Configuring USB Devices 126

USB Basics 126

Linux USB Drivers 127

USB Manager Applications 128

Configuring Hard Disks 129

Configuring PATA Disks 129

Configuring SATA Disks 130

Configuring SCSI Disks 130

Configuring External Disks 132

Designing a Hard Disk Layout 132

Why Partition? 133

Understanding Partitioning Systems 133

An Alternative to Partitions: LVM 136

Mount Points 136

Common Partitions and Filesystem Layouts 137

Creating Partitions and Filesystems 139

Partitioning a Disk 140

Preparing a Partition for Use 145

Maintaining Filesystem Health 151

Tuning Filesystems 151

Maintaining a Journal 156

Checking Filesystems 157

Monitoring Disk Use 158

Mounting and Unmounting Filesystems 161

Temporarily Mounting or Unmounting Filesystems 162

Permanently Mounting Filesystems 167

Summary 169

Exam Essentials 170

Review Questions 172

Chapter 4 Managing Files 177

Using File Management Commands 178

Naming Files 178

Exploring Wildcard Expansion Rules 180

Understanding the File Commands 180

Archiving File Commands 187

Managing Links 195

Understanding the Directory Commands 198

Managing File Ownership 199

Assessing File Ownership 199

Changing a File’s Owner 200

Changing a File’s Group 200

Controlling Access to Files 200

Understanding Permissions 201

Changing a File’s Mode 206

Setting the Default Mode and Group 210

Changing File Attributes 212

Managing Disk Quotas 213

Enabling Quota Support 214

Setting Quotas for Users 215

Locating Files 216

Getting to Know the FHS 216

Employing Tools to Locate Files 222

Summary 226

Exam Essentials 226

Review Questions 228

Chapter 5 Booting Linux and Editing Files 233

Installing Boot Loaders 234

Boot Loader Principles 235

Using GRUB Legacy as the Boot Loader 238

Using GRUB 2 as the Boot Loader 243

Using Alternative Boot Loaders 245

Understanding the Boot Process 247

Extracting Information about the Boot Process 247

Locating and Interpreting Boot Messages 248

The Boot Process 248

The Initialization Process 249

Using the SysV Initialization Process 250

Runlevel Functions 250

Identifying the Services in a Runlevel 252

Managing Runlevel Services 253

Checking Your Runlevel 255

Changing Runlevels on a Running System 255

Using the systemd Initialization Process 258

Units and Targets 259

Configuring Units 260

Setting the Default Target 261

The systemctl Program 262

Using the Upstart Initialization Process 263

Using Upstart-Native Methods 264

Using SysV Compatibility Methods 264

Editing Files with vi 265

Understanding Vi Modes 265

Exploring Basic Text-Editing Procedures 266

Saving Changes 269

Summary 270

Exam Essentials 270

Review Questions 272

Part II Exam LX0-104 277

Chapter 6 Configuring the X Window System, Localization, and Printing 279

Configuring Basic X Features 280

X Server Options for Linux 280

Methods of Configuring X 282

X Configuration Options 285

Obtaining X Display Information 293

Configuring X Fonts 295

Font Technologies and Formats 296

Configuring X Core Fonts 296

Configuring a Font Server 299

Configuring Xft Fonts 300

Managing GUI Logins 301

The X GUI Login System 301

Running an XDMCP Server 302

Configuring an XDMCP Server 304

Using X for Remote Access 306

X Client-Server Principles 306

Using Remote X Clients 307

X Accessibility 310

Keyboard and Mouse Accessibility Issues 310

Screen Display Settings 312

Using Additional Assistive Technologies 314

Configuring Localization and Internationalization 315

Setting Your Time Zone 315

Querying and Setting Your Locale 318

Configuring Printing 321

Conceptualizing the Linux Printing Architecture 321

Understanding PostScript and Ghostscript 322

Running a Printing System 324

Configuring CUPS 324

Monitoring and Controlling the Print Queue 330

Summary 335

Exam Essentials 335

Review Questions 337

Chapter 7 Administering the System 343

Managing Users and Groups 344

Understanding Users and Groups 344

Configuring User Accounts 348

Configuring Groups 359

Viewing Individual Account Records 362

Tuning User and System Environments 364

Using Log and Journal Files 365

Understanding syslogd 366

Setting Logging Options 366

Manually Logging Data 369

Rotating Log Files 370

Reviewing Log File Contents 373

Exploring the systemd Journal System 374

Maintaining the System Time 379

Understanding Linux Time Concepts 379

Manually Setting the Time 380

Using Network Time Protocol 381

Running Jobs in the Future 389

Understanding the Role of cron 389

Creating System cron Jobs 390

Creating User cron Jobs 391

Using anacron 394

Using at 396

Summary 399

Exam Essentials 399

Review Questions 401

Chapter 8 Configuring Basic Networking 407

Understanding TCP/IP Networking 408

Knowing the Basic Functions of Network Hardware 408

Investigating Types of Network Hardware 409

Understanding Network Packets 411

Understanding Network Protocol Stacks 411

Knowing TCP/IP Protocol Types 413

Understanding Network Addressing 414

Using Network Addresses 414

Resolving Hostnames 421

Network Ports 424

Configuring Linux for a Local Network 427

Network Hardware Configuration 428

Configuring with DHCP 428

Configuring Routing 432

Using GUI Configuration Tools 434

Using the ifup and ifdown Commands 434

Configuring Hostnames 435

Diagnosing Network Connections 438

Testing Basic Connectivity 438

Tracing a Route 439

Checking Network Status 441

Examining Raw Network Traffic 441

Using Additional Tools 443

Summary 445

Exam Essentials 445

Review Questions 447

Chapter 9 Writing Scripts, Configuring Email, and Using

Databases 453

Managing the Shell Environment 454

Reviewing Environment Variables 454

Understanding Common Environment Variables 455

Using Aliases 459

Modifying Shell Configuration Files 460

Writing Scripts 462

Beginning a Shell Script 463

Using Commands in Shell Scripts 463

Running a Shell Script 465

Using Variables in Shell Scripts 470

Using Conditional Expressions 478

Using Loops 485

Using Lists 493

Using Functions 495

Managing Email 497

Understanding Email 498

Choosing Email Software 498

Working with Email 500

Managing Data with SQL 504

Picking a SQL Package 505

Understanding SQL Basics 505

Using MySQL 506

Summary 515

Exam Essentials 515

Review Questions 517

Chapter 10 Securing Your System 523

Administering Network Security 524

Using Super Server Restrictions 525

Disabling Unused Servers 530

Administering Local Security 540

Securing Passwords 540

Limiting root Access 544

Auditing User Access 547

Setting Login, Process, and Memory Limits 551

Locating SUID/SGID Files 553

Configuring SSH 555

Understanding SSH Basics 555

Setting SSH Options 556

Preventing SSH Security Problems 563

Using GPG 563

Generating Keys 564

Importing Keys 565

Revoking a Key 566

Encrypting and Decrypting Data 566

Signing Messages and Verifying Signatures 567

Summary 567

Exam Essentials 568

Review Questions 570

Appendix Answers 575

Chapter 1: Exploring Linux Command-Line Tools 576

Chapter 2: Managing Software 579

Chapter 3: Configuring Hardware 583

Chapter 4: Managing Files 586

Chapter 5: Booting Linux and Editing Files 590

Chapter 6: Configuring the X Window System, Localization, and Printing 593

Chapter 7: Administering the System 597

Chapter 8: Configuring Basic Networking 601

Chapter 9: Writing Scripts, Configuring Email, and Using Databases 605

Chapter 10: Securing Your System 609

Index 613

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