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Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Communicating with Intelligence: Writing and Briefing for National Security / Edition 2

Communicating with Intelligence: Writing and Briefing for National Security / Edition 2

by James S. Major, Peter EarnestJames S. Major
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Communicating with Intelligence was the first book to teach the skills needed to make sure that papers, reports, and other products be correctly written by intelligence students and professionals. It also responded to the increased number of degrees in intelligence and national security offered in academic institutions.

Aimed at students, faculty, and practitioners, the book is designed to provide all necessary information on how to prepare, write, and read intelligence publications:

·Foundations of successful intelligence communication
·Differences between academic and intelligence writing
·How to use arguments
·Framework for analysis
·Writing toolkit
·How the briefing process works
·Guide to creating citations
·How to handle classified materials
·Samples of individual and group exercises

This fully revised and expanded edition will be an essential tool for anyone who needs to learn or hone their skills in how to communicate with intelligence effectively.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781442226623
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Publication date: 06/18/2014
Series: Security and Professional Intelligence Education Series
Edition description: Second Edition
Pages: 430
Sales rank: 658,747
Product dimensions: 5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.90(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

James S. Major spent 40 years in intelligence, serving in both military and civilian capacity, in assignments at the tactical, operational, strategic, and national levels. He has written 15 books, all published by the U.S. government, and in 1997 he was awarded the National Intelligence Medal of Achievement.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1: What It’s All About
Getting Started: Good Writing Habits
Reader Considerations: Basic Truths of Communicating
Reading: A Basic Complement to Writing
The Style of Good Intelligence Writing: Bottom Line Up Front
Defining Methods: Telling the Reader Nothing
Making the Distinction Clear for Students
The Three Missions of Intelligence Writing: Judge, Interpret, and Support
Differences between Academic and Intelligence Writing: The Four Essences
Analysts: The Voice of the Intelligence Community
The First Step in the Analyst’s Learning Process: Unlearn and Relearn
A Framework for Analysis: The Manager’s Perspective for a New Analyst
Does It Work?
A Final Thought about the Mission
Getting to the Argument
Exercises in the Foundations of Analysis

Chapter 2: Using Argument in Intelligence Writing
What Is Argument?
Argument Is Central to Intelligence Analysis
When You Argue, You Take a Stand
Formulating a Thesis Statement
Argument Reflects How Humans Think
Some Ways We Think
Evaluating Arguments
Where Are the Truths in This Ugly Business?
Putting Your Best Argument Forward
Exercises in Argument

Chapter 3: Reading: Fundamental to Writing
Read to Write: Electronic or Printed
Who Needs It—and Why?
The Forms of Intelligence: Basic, Current, and Estimative
Content: Digging into the Format
Evaluating Finished Intelligence
Think About Graphics as an Attention-Grabber
Reading for the Sake of Writing
Exercises in Reading Intelligence

Chapter 4: A Tool Kit for Writing with Intelligence
Why Write?
Clarity: Be Kind to Your Reader
Conciseness: Don’t Waste Their Time
Correctness: A Hallmark of Good Writing
Appropriateness: Who, Why, and How?
Completeness: The Whole Nine Yards
Coherence: The “Glue” That Holds It All Together
Energize Your Writing with Strong Verbs
Watch Out for the Wimps: Prepositional Phrases
Stil-l-l Go-o-oing …
Taking the Tool Kit to Work or School
Exercises in the Basic Tools of Intelligence Writing

Chapter 5: Prewriting: Warming Up Your Brain to Free Your Hand
Finding Your Subject: The Search for Substance
Focusing on Form and Format
Finding the Time and the Space
Finding the Right Reference Materials
Some Prewriting Tools: Building a Foundation
Brainstorm: It Takes More Than One Brain to Make a Storm
Freewrite: Let the Mind Go
Outline: Add Structure
Map: Let the Journey Begin
Searching, Researching
Exercises in Prewriting

Chapter 6: Writing the First Draft: Getting the Words on Paper
A Reminder about Good Writing Habits
Reader Considerations: Basic to Everything We Write
Keep That Bottom Line Up Front
Guidelines for the Preparation of Key Judgments
Defining Our Analytical Methods: Who Cares?
Drafting: Get Right to It
The Way You Write
More about Style
More than Words Can Say: Visual Aids
Organizing the First Draft
Writing That First Draft: Back to the Prewriting
Your Main Points and the Important Topic Sentence
Transitions: Moving Smoothly Ahead
The Body of Your Writing
Last, But Assuredly Not Least
The Bottom Line: Focus
Remaining Objective
Evaluating Sources: Consider the Originator, Date, and Publisher
Previews of Coming Attractions: Titles, Headings, and Subheadings
Beyond the Form and the Format
One Final Note
Exercises in Writing the First Draft

Chapter 7: Drafting Conclusions
The Role of the Conclusion in Intelligence Writing
Finishing Strong
How to Think About Your Conclusions
Techniques for Ending Well
Two Practical Examples: Adea and Zanga
Cheesy, Confusing, and Otherwise Problematic Ways to Say “The End”
Some Last Words
Exercises in Drafting Conclusions

Chapter 8: Beyond the First Draft: Analytical Papers
What Intelligence Writing Should Do: Describe, Explain, & Estimate
What Is an Analytical Paper?
Focus on Conclusions
Be Relevant to the User
Concentrate on Essentials
Avoid Policy Prescription
A Model Process for Reviewing an Analytical Paper
E-Review: Working in the Electronic World
Constraints on Review: Time, Experience, Expectations, and Attitude
Styles of Review: Holistic, Top Down, or Bottom Up
Review Guidelines: 14 Steps toward Better Analytical Writing
Exercises in Writing Analytical Papers

Chapter 9: Revision: Polishing Your Writing
Basic Revision Techniques
Peer Review: A Means toward Revision
Review of Content: Three Rs and Four Sweeps
The Three “R” Method of Revision: Reread, Re-envision, and Rewrite
“Four Sweeps” for Revision: Clarity, Persuasiveness, Packaging, and Writing
Thesis and Overview Statements: One Small Step during Revision
What about Grammar-Checkers?
Commonly Asked Questions about Revision
Ten Questions to Help You Examine Your Own Writing Process
Ending on a Positive Note
Exercises in Revision

Chapter 10: Additional Exercises to Hone Your Writing Skills
Exercise 1: Writing a Thesis Statement
Exercise 2: Writing a Paragraph
Exercise 3: Writing a Summary
Exercise 4: Getting the Bottom Line Up Front
Exercise 5: Working with the Types of Intelligence Writing—Describe, Explain, and Estimate
Exercise 6: Avoiding Passive Voice and Wordiness
Exercise 7: Peer Review of Student Writing


Chapter 11: Briefing: The Flip Side of the Communication Coin
A Disclaimer: Read and Heed, Please
Getting the Word Out
The Learning Process: Baby Steps First
Why Brief?
A Brief Typology of Briefings
“All of the Above” or “None of the Above”?
Exercises in the Types and Principles of Briefings

Chapter 12: The ABCs of Good Intelligence Briefings and Briefers
The First Half: Briefings, Easy as ABC
The Second Half: The Briefer
Summing Up, from A to C
Exercises in Good Intelligence Briefings and Briefers

Chapter 13: Organizing and Writing the Briefing
Getting Started Means Getting Organized
Finding Your Subject and the Time
Plan Ahead: Lay the Groundwork
Plan Your Milestones: One Step at a Time
Outline Your Thoughts
Analyze Your Audience
Do Your Homework
Writing the Briefing Script: Write the Words You Will Say
Tell ‘em What You’re Gonna Tell ‘em: The Introduction
Free Sample Briefing Introduction: A Brief Assignment
Tell ‘em: The Body of the Briefing
Putting the Words Together: Writing the Main Body
Putting the Pictures Together: Making Your Point with Visual Aids
Tell’em What You Told ‘em: The Conclusion
Putting the Words and Pictures Together
Summing Up
Exercises in Organizing and Writing the Briefing

Chapter 14: Fine-Tuning Your Briefing: Voice, Notes, and Visuals
Don’t Take Your Voice for Granted
Use of Notes
Use of Visual Aids
The Best Tip of All
Exercises in Fine-Tuning Your Briefing

Chapter 15: Doing It!
Getting Up to Brief: The Absolute Necessity
Rehearse First—Always!
The Big Day at Last


A Note to Readers: Summarizing Part Four

Chapter 16: A Few Guidelines for a More Readable Style
Don’t Waste Words
Use Numbers Properly
Plurals and Singulars
Placement of Titles, Headings, and Subheadings
The Paper Layout: Think Again about Your Reader
Concluding Section: All Good Things Must End
Appendixes and Annexes: Extra Added Attractions
Additional Front Matter Options: Lists of Figures or Graphics
How to Handle Graphic Material (Figures, Maps, Charts, Graphs, or Tables)
Exercises in Usage

Chapter 17: Citing Your Sources: A Must for Scholarship
Who Needs to Cite?
Why Do It?
How Do I Do It?
General Format
Spacing and Fonts
Sample Note and Bibliographic Forms
Abbreviations: Use Few
ABCs of Alphabetization
Anonymous Authors or Unattributed Work
Capitalization and Punctuation in Titles
Cited Hereafter as . . .
Dates of Publication
Explanatory Notes: When the Reader Needs More
Foreign-Language Publications
Indirect (Secondary) References
Members of Congress
Military Rank
Missing Data
Multiple Sources in One Note
Names, Referenced in the Text
Punctuation in Quoted Material
Secondary (Short) Citations
Subsequent Works by the Same Author, Agency, or Organization
Titles of Individuals
Translations from a Foreign Language
Volume Numbers in Notes and Bibliography
Bits and Bytes
Exercises in Citing Sources

Chapter18: Electronic Citations
Electronic Sources: What Are You Citing?
The Addresses: Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)
The Mysterious Disappearing Website
Page Numbers in Electronic Citations: Not Always There
PDFs, PROQUEST and Such: Looking at the Real Thing
Links, Homepages, and Search Engines: Preferred Solution
Generic Citation Format
Keeping Up in the E-World
Exercises in Electronic Citations

Chapter 19: Handling and Citing Classified Material
Why Use Classified Information?
Unclassified Excerpts from Classified Works: A Bad Idea
How? Similarity to Unclassified Forms
Proper Precautions and Markings
Downgrading, Declassification, and Marking
No Downgrading Shown?
Note and Bibliographic Forms
Intelink: A Unique Intelligence Source
Exercises in Handling and Citing Classified Material

Chapter 20: Answers to the Exercises
Part One: The Foundations of Good Intelligence Communication
Part Two: Writing with Intelligence
Part Three: Briefing with Intelligence
Part Four: A Short Style Manual and Citation Guide
Appendix A: Possible Replacement Words
Appendix B: A Usage Glossary for Intelligence Writers
Appendix C: Intelligence Briefing Checklist
Appendix D: A “Free Sample” Briefing Introduction
Appendix E: A Sample Briefing Conclusion
Appendix F: A Briefing Evaluation Form
Other Sources Used or Consulted for This Book
About the Contributors and the Author

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